BIBLICAL AGRONOMY

“Plant a garden and you work hand in hand with God”.

What Is It?     “Biblical Agronomy” is a philosophy of agriculture, a system of farming based on the Christian bible and practices of the early Catholic Church.  Over time these precepts have evolved into a new way of thinking, a unique form of Biological Agriculture.

How To Do It:     Following are Bible passages with agricultural commentaries to help farmers apply biblical principles in a modern world:

“Thou shalt not kill”.  Exodus 20 : 1 – 17.   Editor’s Note:  This injunction from the “Ten Commandments” is the first principle of Biblical Agronomy and the hardest concept for most farmers to practice.  Modern industrial agriculture is largely negative.  It proceeds from the assumption that nature must be subdued.  Soils must be plowed.  Weeds must be eradicated.  Insects must be exterminated.  Farmers spend much of their time spraying deadly chemicals:  Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides — a laundry list of toxins.  Conventional agriculture is all about killing things.  Biblical agronomy takes the opposite approach:  Agriculture is about life, not death.  Farmers concentrate on genesis = creating life.  Biology replaces chemicals.  Earthworms replace plows.  Plants replace petroleum.  “Let nature do the heavy lifting”.  The principle distinction between Biblical Agronomy and conventional agriculture is that when problems arise farmers ask:  “How do I solve this without killing anything?”

“Speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee”.  Job 12 : 8.  Editor’s Note:  Successful farmers copy nature in their fields.  Two thousand years ago Roman farmers practiced “Cultura Promiscua” = companion planting:  Olives, pomegranates, figs, grapes, cereals, legumes, and vegetables were grown together on small, 5-acre farms worked by hand.  Today, we call this “agroforestry”.  Back then, it was practical husbandry.  Planting mixtures of crops without plowing was the easiest way to maintain soil fertility and prevent erosion.  Native fields and forests have no bare ground.  The earth is constantly covered with mixtures of plants.  Observe nature closely then copy what you see.

“If you enter your neighbor’s grain field, you may pick kernels with your hands, but you must not put a sickle to  his standing grain”.  Deuteronomy 23 : 25.  Editor’s Note:  The poor have the right to eat from your fields but not the right to harvest for profit.  Over the centuries this rule has evolved into the practice of leaving some part of a field unharvested so beneficial insects and wildlife have something to eat.  Modern custom is to reserve 5% to 10% of crops for “Nature’s Pantry”.  The alternative is buying costly insecticides.

“If you enter your neighbor’s vineyard, you may eat all the grapes you want, but do not put any in your basket”.  Deuteronomy 23 : 24.  Editor’s Note:  Eat your fill but do not carry any away.  Hospitality to all in need was official Church doctrine during the Middle Ages.  The right of the hungry to eat from the fields was part of the social safety net for the poor.  This practice was later codified in various “laws of hospitality”.  Modern farmers plant hedgerows and “insectary crops” to feed beneficial wildlife.  Biologically managed vineyards are sown with legumes and wildflowers.  Flowers replace insecticides.

“Do not plant two kinds of seed in your vineyard; if you do, not only the crops you plant but also the fruit of the vineyard will be defiled”.  Deuteronomy 22 : 9.  Editor’s Note:  Modern agronomists interpret this rule as a general injunction against mixing varieties of the same open pollinated species.  Isolation distances must be preserved to prevent cross-pollination so varieties remain pure.  (This rule does not apply to self-pollinated species because out-crossing rarely occurs).

“Isaac planted crops in that land and the same year reaped a hundredfold, because the Lord blessed him.”  Genesis 26 : 12.  Editor’s Note:  Historical seed to harvest ratios of 1 : 100 are not inconceivable.  Roman farmers routinely harvested 40 bushels of wheat per acre.  80-bushel yields were common when irrigated grain followed nitrogen-fixing cover crops of lentils, lupines, clover, or vetch.  Modern wheat varieties regularly produce 100-bushel yields.  The keys to bumper grain crops are no tillage, live soils, wide spacing of individual plants, living mulches to control weeds, companion plants to increase biodiversity, and irrigation to prevent water competition between grain and cover crops.  Farmers in the Middle Ages planted the “Holy Trinity” = 1 grain + 1 legume + 1 root crop.  For example:  Wheat, clover, and turnips.  Seeded at 50 pounds of wheat per acre, this polycrop easily yields 3,000 pounds (50 bushels) per acre = 1 : 60 seed to harvest ratio.

“But the seed falling on good soil refers to someone who hears the word and understands it.  This is the one who produces a crop, yielding a hundred, sixty, or thirty times what was sown.”  Matthew 13 : 33.  Editor’s Note:  Plant most any heritage variety of winter wheat in your garden, for example, Red Fife.  Space plants 1 foot apart equidistantly.  Mulch the ground and water as needed.  Each plant will yield 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 ounces of grain on average = approximately 1,305 to 2,175 seeds per plant = 68 to 113 bushels per acre.  You do not need “improved” or “hybrid” varieties to obtain high yields.  Good growing conditions are the most important factors.

“When you are harvesting in your field and you overlook a sheaf, do not go back to get it.  Leave it for the foreigner, the fatherless and the widow, so that the Lord your God may bless you in all the work of your hands”.  Deuteronomy 24 : 19.  Editor’s Note:  Modern farmers plant wildlife food plots or leave border rows unharvested.  Biological agriculture practice requires that farms be managed as ecosystems rather than individual fields.  The idea is to encourage large populations of many beneficial species.  More biodiversity = healthy ecology = better plant growth = higher yields.

“Do not go over your vineyard a second time or pick up the grapes that have fallen.  Leave them for the poor and the foreigner”.  Leviticus 19 : 10.  Editor’s Note:  Today, “good farming practice” means leaving as much plant residue as possible to prevent erosion and feed soil critters.  Grain fields are harvested with “header reels” to leave standing straw to slow wind and trap snow.  Farmers plant mixed species cover crops to feed earthworms over winter.  Fallen fruits are grazed, composted, or burned to break insect and disease cycles.  Vineyards and orchards are sown with weeds, legumes, wildflowers, and insectary crops to support large populations of beneficial insects.  More flowers = fewer pests.

“When you reap the harvest of your land, do not reap to the very edges of your field or gather the gleanings of your harvest”.  Leviticus 19 : 9.  Editor’s Note:  The right of the poor to glean fields is common to many cultures.  Modern farmers leave border rows unharvested.  Head rows are planted with “bee pasture”.  Strips of weeds, wildflowers, and insectary crops are sown within fields to feed beneficial insects.  Wildlife food plots and “insect refuges” are seeded in odd corners of land.  The idea is to encourage maximum populations of useful species.

Social Commentary:  In this modern world farmers comprise less than 2% of the United States population.  Most farms are located far from cities.  Fields are harvested by machines.  Thus, there are few rural poor and hardly any crops to glean.  This is in stark contrast to biblical times when 98% of the people were farmers, many of them hungry.  Today, feeding the urban poor is not easy.  Rural labor shortages mean there are few hands to pick fruits and vegetables.  Surplus crops often rot in the fields while Food Banks go empty.  The Bible is easy to read but difficult to practice.

“You shall not breed together two kinds of your cattle; you shall not sow your field with two kinds of seed, nor wear a garment upon you of two kinds of material mixed together”.  Leviticus 19 : 19.  Editor’s Note:  Ancient Jews had a passion for keeping everything separate.  This extended to cooking (do not mix meat and milk) and marriage (do not marry “gentiles” = non-Jews).  Modern agronomy has turned the old rules upside down.  Farmers now plant hybrid seeds and graze hybrid cattle on multiple species forage crops.  Science and practical experience have taught us that mixtures grow better than individual species grown separately.  Polycrops are the new “best practice”.  Grains and legumes are sown together.  Fields are planted with strips of unrelated crops.  The goal is maximum biodiversity.  Biology, not chemistry, keeps soils fertile and pests under control.

“But during the seventh year the land shall have a sabbath rest, a sabbath to the Lord; you shall not sow your field nor prune your vineyard”.  Leviticus 25 : 4.  Editor’s Note:  Long rotations break insect and disease cycles.  For example:  Farmers in Argentina rotate 7 years of field crops with 7 years of pasture.  (Alternating pasture and row crops is called “ley farming”).  7-year rotations are ideal for restoring soil structure and fertility.  Rule-of-Thumb:  Never plant the same crop on a field more than once every 7 years.  Reserving 1/7th = 14% of cropland for annual fallow is a great way to support large populations of wildlife and beneficial insects.

“A king who cultivates the field is an advantage to the land”.  Ecclesiastes 5 : 9.  Political Commentary:  Humility precedes learning.  There is much advantage in keeping leaders humble.  From a practical standpoint, a king busy growing his crops has little time for mischief.  Most people care not who runs the government as long as it leaves them alone.  “God bless us with a king who rules and does nothing”.  (Farmers around the world have inherent distrust of government.  This reticence comes from long experience:  When officials arrive, bad things happen).  Farmers who practice Biblical Agronomy tend to be independent spirits.  Many live off-grid.  The majority are socially conservative.  Most have root cellars or can their own vegetables.  Large numbers store a 2-year food supply.  “Biblical” farmers are much like the Amish:  They are part of our modern culture yet live apart from it.

“But on the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow, so that the needy of your people may eat; and whatever they leave the beast of the field may eat.  You are to do the same with your vineyard and olive grove”.  Exodus 23 : 11.  Editor’s Note:  Planting monocrops year after year depletes soil fertility and promotes outbreaks of pests and diseases.  Farmers practicing Biblical Agronomy avoid these problems by keeping 7-year rotations and planting polycrops.  For example:  “The Twelve Apostles” is a multi-species forage mix including 4 grains + 4 legumes + 4 root or forb crops.  Mixed species produce more nutritious forage and higher yields.  “Tithing” 1/7th = 14% of cropland for annual fallow (weeds or mixed species cover crops) promotes large numbers of beneficial insects.  The good bugs eat the bad bugs.

“I will feed them with good pasture, and on the mountain heights of Israel shall be their grazing land”.  Ezekiel 34 : 15.  Editor’s Note:  “Mixed Farming” = growing plants and animals has been the foundation of agriculture since historic times.  The reason is simple:  Plants and animals have evolved to grow well together.  While it is possible to raise plants and animals separately, monocultures are much more susceptible to insects, diseases, and environmental stress.  Biological balance is a key principle of Biblical Agronomy.  Pastures grow better when grazed.  Crops yield more when dunged.  Animals stimulate plants to grow better.  Healthy plants keep animals in good condition.

“What the cows eschew the goats relish.  That which the goats ignore the sheep enjoy.  Upon what the sheep leave the birds feast.  Whatever the fowl demurs the worms delight.  In this way the land feeds all”.

“Thirty milking camels and their colts, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty female donkeys and ten male donkeys”.  Genesis 32 : 15.  Editor’s Note:  Smart farmers use rotation and polycrops to control pests and diseases.  The same principles apply to raising animals.  Herds should be rotated to improve pastures.  Mixed species control weeds and parasites.  For example:  Range chickens 3 or 4 days behind cattle.  Chickens eat fly maggots and keep pastures sanitary.  Every mouth eats something different and so the whole farm produces more food.

“The best medicine is the watchful eye of the herdsman”.

“Know well the state of your flocks, and pay attention to your herds”.  Proverbs 27 : 23.  Editor’s Note:  Anciently, herds grazed randomly and were moved irregularly.  Plants were overgrazed and pastures declined.   Modern farmers practice “Intensive Rotational Grazing”:  Animals are crowded into small paddocks then moved to fresh pasture every 12 to 24 hours.  Each meadow is rotated on a 30-day or longer calendar so plants have time to regrow.  Pasture rotation produces more forage and breaks parasite reproduction cycles.

“The sea coast will be pastures, with cottages for shepherds and folds for flocks”.  Zephaniah 2 : 6.  Editor’s Note:  Piling, carting and spreading manure is hard work.  “Sheep Folding” is easier:  Flocks are crowded into small fields at dusk where they urinate and defecate all night long.  At dawn, animals are turned into fresh pasture.   Fertilized ground can then be plowed and sown.  Alternatively, broadcast seed into standing vegetation then fold animals overnight.  Hooves trod seed into ground.  Trampled plants cover and protect germinating crops.  This is called “Stomp Seeding”.  Roman farmers averaged 40 to 50 bushels of wheat per acre using these methods.  Biblical Agronomy is all about balance.  Plants and animals grow well together.

“I shall become enlightened for the sake of all living things”.

Ten Agricultural Commandments:  Following is a list of biological principles for Biblical Agronomy.  Use these guidelines to make farm management decisions.

I.  Do Not Kill.  Find another way.  Use the least intrusive methods.  “Walk lightly upon the land”.

“Farmers are keepers of the earth”.

II.  Keep the Agricultural Sabbath.  Follow 7-year rotations.  Long rotations control most insects and diseases without need for human intervention.  Crop rotations improve soil tilth and fertility.

“At Nature’s table all are welcome”.

III.  Tithe for Nature.  Provide hospitality to all in need. Leave border rows unharvested.  Plant wildlife food plots.  Reserve 5% to 10% of farmland for hedgerows, windbreaks, and wood lots.  Wildlife are an essential part of the agricultural ecosystem.

“God loves all his creatures, even bugs”.

IV.  Feed the Insects.  Reserve 5% to 10% of cropland for native weeds, insect refuges, bee pasture, and insectary crops.  Conventional monocrop farms are “green deserts” without nectar or pollen for beneficial insects.  Feed the good bugs and they will protect your crops.

V.  Sow Polycultures Whenever Practical.  Plant the “Holy Trinity” and “The Twelve Apostles”.  Mixed species are the key to soil fertility and high yields.

VI.  Do Not Plow.  Practice zero-tillage whenever possible.  Symbiotic fungi are essential to plant health and nutrition.  Beneficial fungal networks must be protected at all times or soil ecology will collapse.

VII.  Keep Soil Covered at All Times.  Soil is a living organism that requires air, water, food, and shelter.  Keep it warm during winter and cool over summer.  Do not let topsoil dry out.  Prevent crusting and compaction so soil can breathe and rain can enter.  Protect fields with mulch or live plants 365 days yearly.  “Keep fields green”.

“Good farmers grow fungi.  The fungi grow the crops”.

VIII.  Feed the Fungi.  Plants feed sugar to fungi.  Fungi provide water and minerals to plants.  Trading requires live roots or fungi die or go dormant.  Plant productivity is directly related to the number and extent of fungal networks.  More fungi = higher yields.  Good farmers keep their fields covered with growing plants year-round.

“Roots in the ground all year round”.

IX.  Encourage Maximum Biodiversity.  Genesis is the heart of Biblical Agronomy.  Agriculture is all about creating life.  Ecosystem productivity and stability are directly related to number of species.  More species = healthy ecology = higher yields.  Good farmers plant many varieties to provide food and shelter for all God’s creatures.

X.  Grow Crops and Animals Together.  Plants and animals are like two sides of an arch:  Remove one and the other falls.  Mixed farms have more biological stability and greater resilience to environmental stress and economic change.  Wide diversity protects farmers from crop failures and uncertain markets.

“The Lord gave the word and great was the company of the creatures”.

The Eleventh Commandment:     “Thou shalt inherit the holy earth as a faithful steward conserving its resources and productivity from generation to generation.  Thou shalt safeguard thy fields from soil erosion, thy living waters from drying up, thy forests from desolation, and protect thy hills from overgrazing by the herds, that thy descendants may have abundance forever.  If any shall fail in this stewardship of the land, thy fruitful fields shall become sterile stony ground or wasting gullies, and thy descendants shall decrease and live in poverty or perish from off the face of the earth”.  [Walter Clay Lowdermilk, soil conservationist, radio broadcast from Jerusalem, June 1939].

Wrapping It Up:     Biblical Agronomy is not so much a rigid set of rules but rather a way of thinking about biology.  Adapt basic principles to fit local conditions.  The key is to be practical rather than zealous.  God will not smite you if you spray the locusts.

Agronomy Notes:

Bee Pasture = Plants selected for long flowering seasons and large amounts of nectar and pollen.  Wild bees and other native insects provide most of the pollination for agricultural crops.  Good farmers sow 5% to 10% of farmland with bee forage.  (If you cannot afford seed plant native weeds).

Border Rows = Crops growing along field edges.  Farmers often leave 2 to 4 rows unharvested to feed wild animals.  Border row dimensions are determined by the width of planting and harvesting machinery.

Head Rows = Empty space at field ends used for turning tractors and farm equipment.  On conventional farms head rows are covered with sod or left bare.  On biologically managed fields head rows are planted with clover, wildflowers, native weeds, or other “bee forage”.  The idea is to provide food and shelter to encourage large numbers of beneficial insects.

Hedgerows = Narrow lines of small trees or shrubs planted to contain animals, slow wind, trap snow, moderate micro-climate, and provide food and shelter for beneficial wildlife.  Ideal hedgerows are composed entirely of economic species that can be harvested for nuts, berries, fruits or other cash crops.  Plant 40 or more species per linear mile for high biodiversity.  Hedgerows support large populations of insect eating birds.

Insectary Crops = Plants with many small flowers ideal for feeding beneficial insects.  For example:  Anise, buckwheat, caraway, clover, coriander, dill, and fennel.  These can be combine harvested and the seed sold for profit.

Insect Refuges = Standing crops left unharvested so insects have undisturbed habitat for feeding and breeding.  For example:  If you mow a hay field all at once the insects have nowhere to go and nothing to eat.  The solution is to leave a strip of meadow unharvested so insect populations are preserved.  (If land is scarce sow native weeds in odd corners or other spaces unsuitable for farm machinery).

“Rotational Grazing Rule-Of-Thumb:  Eat 1/3, Stomp 1/3, Leave 1/3”.

Intensive Rotational Grazing = Crowding animals into small paddocks then moving herd to fresh pasture every 12 to 24 hours.  Pastures are rotated on 30-day or longer cycles so plants have time to regrow.  Rotational grazing produces large amounts of highly nutritious forage.  400% yield increases are possible with mixed species forage crops. Long rotations break insect, disease and parasite reproduction cycles.  (Mob grazing is a similar practice).

Ley Farming = Rotating pasture and field crops to control weeds and fertilize soil.  Combining animals in farm rotations boosts crop yields.  Manure stimulates plant growth more than equal weights of fresh or composted grass.  (Strange things happen in a cow’s stomach.  Grass goes in and super-charged fertilizer comes out.  How this happens is scientific mystery).

Living Mulches = Short plants sown to cover the soil and prevent weed growth.  Cash crops are seeded or transplanted into the living mulch using no-till equipment.  For example:  Peppers can be transplanted into an established sward of Dutch White Clover (Trifolium repens).  The clover smothers weeds and feeds nitrogen to the cash crop.

Mixed Farming = Growing a wide variety of plants and animals on the same farm.  Including pasture and hay in crop rotations.  Grazing herds on harvested fields.  Using animals to control weeds.  Spreading manure to fertilize cash crops.  Mixed farms are more biologically stable and much less susceptible to economic and environmental changes.

Mob Grazing =  Concentrating very large herds on small pastures is called “Mob Grazing”.  Density is about 800 to 1,000 cows per acre and animals are shifted every 1 or 2 hours.  Meadows are rotated on long 6 to 12 month cycles so plants regrow.  High density and long rotations mimic natural migration of buffalo and other vast herds on prairie ecosystems.  (Intensive Rotational Grazing is a closely related practice).

Mulch-In-Place = Sow a fast-growing cover crop that produces large amounts of biomass (stems and leaves).  Kill the mature cover crop with a roller-crimper or sickle-bar mower.  Seed or transplant through the mulch using no-till equipment.  Mulch-In-Place provides 90% to 95% weed control, as good or better than glyphosate (Roundup) or other conventional herbicides.

Multiple Species Cover Crops = Mixtures of plants grown to control weeds, feed livestock, and fertilize fields.  For best results sow many species to enhance biological synergy.  Mixed plants feed soil bacteria and support vast networks of beneficial fungi.  The fungi provide water and nutrients to the plants.  Basic cover crop mixes include:  2 cool season grasses + 2 cool season legumes + 2 cool season broad leaf plants + 2 warm season grasses + 2 warm season legumes + 2 warm season broad leaf plants + 2 or more root crops = 14 or more species.  Use no-till equipment to drill 20 pounds of seed per acre in 2-inch deep furrows spaced 7.5 inches apart.

Polyculture = Growing 2 or more species together.  Polycrops greatly reduce insect pests and produce large amounts of sugar to feed soil bacteria and fungi.  Most soil humus is made by bacteria that eat sugar exuded by plant roots.  Agricultural productivity is directly related to the number of polyculture species.  More species = more leaves and stems = more photosynthesis = more sugar exuded by roots = larger populations of soil microbes = faster nutrient cycling = higher yields.  Some farmers plant cover crops with 60 species!  “There is strength in numbers”.

Strip Cropping = Polyculture system adapted to farm machinery.  Divide farms or fields into narrow strips following land contours.  Plant adjacent strips with unrelated crops to maximize edge effects and increase biodiversity.  Adjust strip widths to match planting and harvesting equipment.  For best results strips should not be wider than 200 feet on flat land or 50 feet on hillsides.  Planting a variety of crops spreads economic and biological risk.  Strip cropping supports large populations of beneficial insects that keep pests under control.

Weed Farming = Manage weeds just like any other cover crop.  (A)  Fertilize and irrigate weeds to promote maximum growth, then flatten with a roller-crimper or sickle-bar mower.  Immediately seed or transplant through the weed mulch using no-till equipment.  (B)  Overseed native weeds with clover or other legumes to make a cheap multi-species cover crop.  (C)  Harvest weeds like silage using a forage chopper.  Use chopped weeds to mulch cash crops.  (D)  For biological pest control, plant weeds next to crops needing protection.  Alternatively, mow strips through tall weeds then plant cash crops down the rows.  Crops grown in weeds rarely have pest problems.  (E)  Native weeds support enormous populations of beneficial insects.  Good farmers reserve 5% to 10% of cropland for weeds.  For best results grow weeds in narrow strips within fields and around field borders.  (F)  Sow weeds to heal bare or worn-out soils.  Wildflower hay can be baled and spread for this purpose or haul weed seeds from the nearest grain elevator.  (G)  Grind weed seeds in a roller mill to make free fertilizer.  Use weed seed meal just like cotton seed meal or other organic plant food.  (H)  When insects threaten to overwhelm, soak chopped weeds in water, strain, then spray “weed tea” on plants.  Weed juice chases away most bugs.

Wildlife Food Plots = Small fields planted with grains, legumes, forbs, and root crops to feed deer, pheasants, turkeys, rabbits, and other game animals.  Wildlife plots are typically seeded on poor, wet or rocky land unsuitable for hay or cash crops.

Windbreaks = Rows of trees, shrubs, perennial Pampas grass, or other vegetation planted to slow wind, stop erosion, trap snow, and moderate micro-climate.  For best results plant windbreaks no closer than 50 feet nor farther than 150 feet apart.  Effective wind protection extends downwind 10 times average tree height.  Plant 40 species per linear mile for high biodiversity.  Windbreaks increase average yields 15% by reducing water loss from crop leaves.  (Common synonyms include:  Greenbelts, Hedgerows, and Shelterbelts).

Wood Lots = Small areas of forest grown to provide firewood.  For highest yield manage trees by coppicing:  Cut down 7-year old trees then harvest on 7-year cycles when stump or root sprouts reach 2 to 3 inches diameter.  Divide forest into 7 sections then harvest each part sequentially.  Coppiced trees live hundreds of years because the are constantly renewed.

Related Publications:     Cover Crop Primer; The Twelve Apostles; Biological Agriculture in Temperate Climates; Polyculture Primer; Strip Cropping Primer; Worm Farming; Managing Weeds as Cover Crops; Earthworm Primer; Planting Maize with Living Mulches; Living Mulches for Weed Control; Crops Among the Weeds; The Edge Effect; Organic Herbicides; Forage Maize for Soil Improvement; Coppicing Primer; Forage Radish Primer; Weed Seed Meal Fertilizer; Intensive Rice Culture Primer; Trash Farming; Pelleted Seed Primer; Upside Down Potatoes; Maize Polyculture Trial 2007 – 2016; No-Till Hungarian Stock Squash; and the Rototiller Primer.

Would You Like To Know More?     For more information on biological agriculture and practical polyculture please visit:  http://www.worldagriculturesolutions.com  — or —  send your questions to:  Eric Koperek, Editor, World Agriculture Solutions, 413 Cedar Drive, Moon Township, Pennsylvania, 15108 USA.

About The Author:     Mr. Koperek is a plant breeder who farms in Pennsylvania during summer and Florida over winter.  (Growing 2 generations yearly speeds development of new crop varieties).

THE TWELVE APOSTLES

What Is It?     “A multi-species cover crop containing 12 varieties often 4 grains, 4 legumes, and 4 root crops”.

12 Apostle mixes are frequently planted by farmers practicing “Biblical Agronomy”.

For example:  Oat, pea, turnip, rye, winter vetch, mangel-wurzel (stock beet), wheat, clover, forage radish, barley, frost bean (fava bean), and rutabaga.

Other possible species include:  Millet, sorghum, buckwheat, maize, teff, sunflower, lentil, lupine, runner bean, sunn hemp, soy bean, flax, rapeseed, safflower, kale, and many other varieties.  Choose what grows well on your farm.

“Melange:  A mixture of grains, legumes, and root crops grown to feed animals and improve soils”.

All melanges contain at least 3 components:  1 grain + 1 legume + 1 root crop = “Holy Trinity”.

“We sowed the Holy Trinity.  Father Michael blessed the crop and our cattle thrived”.

For example:  Thomas Jefferson sowed buckwheat, winter vetch, and turnips to cure “tired soils”.

There is nothing magical about the number 12.  Melanges often contained fewer species.  Farmers blended odds and ends from their granaries or whatever they could buy cheaply.

Growing several species together (polyculture) is not a new idea.  The practice dates to Roman times.  Middle Age farmers called mixed plants “melanges”.  Today, modern agronomists call them “multi-species cover crops”.

Call it what you will, but “bio-diversity” (many species) is a key principle of Biological Agriculture.  Life breeds life.  Each additional species creates more food and shelter for myriad lifeforms.  Grow multi-species cover crops and soon your soil will teem with billions of critters.  More critters = faster nutrient cycling = higher yields.

“Feed the critters and the critters will feed your crops”.

I have not purchased fertilizer (chemical or organic) in 19 years.  Truly, there is power in numbers.  More species means more money in my pocket.

Try this on your farm:  Keep your ground covered with growing plants year-round.  Never plant a crop by itself.  Always plant mixed species.  Copy nature in your fields.  You will be glad you did.

“Roots in the ground all year round”.

Agronomy Notes:

If you do not have experience with polycultures, try something simple.  Winter grains and Dutch White Clover (Trifolium repens) can be planted together at the same time.  (Broadcast clover at 12 pounds per acre).  Clover suppresses weeds and provides nitrogen to the cereal crop.  When the grain is harvested clover covers the field.  The following season mow first then seed or transplant into clover living mulch using no-till equipment.

Different sized seeds can be mixed in the same seed box and drilled into a common furrow.  Big seeds like maize, sunflower and peas break through the soil so little seeds like clover and turnips germinate easily.  Furrows spaced 7.5 inches apart are ideal for most multi-species cover crops.

If desired, seeds can be mixed with cornmeal or sawdust to provide more volume for even distribution.

Small seeds like wheat, vetch and sugar beet can be surface seeded.  For best results use pelleted seed.  Broadcast into standing vegetation then immediately flatten plants with a roller-crimper or cut with a sickle-bar mower.  Surface mulch covers and protects germinating seedlings.

Large seeds like maize, sunflower and beans are best planted underground with no-till equipment.  Surface sow large seeds only with monsoon rains or daily irrigation.

When sowing grains mix several varieties with the same maturity date.  For example:  3 varieties of wheat or 4 varieties of barley.  Planting multiple varieties often increases yields 5% to 7%.  You can also sow different species together:  Mixtures of rye and wheat are called maslin; blends of barley and oats are called dredge.  Mixed grains have better resistance to insects and diseases.

Plant mixtures grow better than individual species.  Sow barley, pinto beans, and tillage radish in separate plots.  Plant a fourth plot with all 3 species.  Come the drought and monocrops shrivel and die, but the polycrop remains green.  Mixed species help each other.  They also support vast networks of beneficial fungi.  The fungi provide water and nutrients to the plants.

“Good farmers grow fungi.  The fungi grow the crops”.

Mixed plants capture more sunlight and produce more biomass.  Rule-of-Thumb:  A polycrop of 1 grain + 1 legume + 1 root crop produces 2 times more vegetation by weight than the same species grown separately.

Polycultures increase grain yields substantially.  For example:  Oats grown alone yielded 43 bushels per acre.  Oats grown with peas and turnips yielded 62 bushels per acre.

Rule-of-Thumb:  You need at least 8 species to get significant benefits from polycultures.  For example:  Oats, peas and turnips yielded 62 bushels per acre.  Oats grown with peas, pinto beans, Dutch white clover, Japanese long turnips, tillage radish, stock beet, and rutabaga yielded 76 bushels per acre.  More species = more biological synergy = higher yields.  For example, mixtures of 12 to 16 species out-yield blends of 8 or fewer species.  Communities of 30 species yield more forage than pastures with only 20 varieties.

Pair tall growing cash crops with short height legumes.  For example:  Sow tall heritage varieties of wheat with Dutch white clover.  Dutch clover grows only 6 inches high so it competes minimally for sunlight with companion crops.  (Planting clover with dwarf or semi-dwarf cereals reduces yields 30% to 50%.  Clover shades grass stems which reduces photosynthesis.  Less sunlight = lower yields).

Sow non-climbing beans with maize for efficient combine harvest.  Vines without tendrils are the best companion plants.  For example:  Maize planted with climbing velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) yielded 128 bushels per acre.  Maize seeded with non-climbing pinto beans yielded 208 bushels per acre.  Similarly, oats planted with climbing peas yielded 19% less than oats seeded with dwarf peas.

Earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) growth is determined mostly by the amount and quality of available food.  Plant monocrops and worms take 3 years to reach sexual maturity.  Sow polycrops and earthworms take only 2 years to reproduce.

Earthworms thrive on balanced diets of mixed plants.  1 acre of orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) supported a population of 361,000 earthworms.  1 acre of 50% orchard grass + 50% Dutch white clover produced 647,000 worms per acre.  Earthworm numbers soared to 2,150,000 per acre planted with a 16 species mix of grasses, legumes, forbs, and root crops.

1,350,000 earthworms per acre feeding on a 20-variety cover crop mix produce 2,700 pounds of surface castings each day of the growing season = about 1 ounce of manure per square foot = 68 pounds of available nitrogen, 35 pounds of phosphorous, and 41 pounds of potassium per acre daily.  That is more than enough fertilizer for maize, sugar cane, potatoes, or any crop a farmer wants to grow.

“Feed the worms and they will tend your crops”.

Cereals grown with companion plants are less susceptible to lodging = falling down.  Over a 61-year period, oats grown by themselves lodged 38 times.  Oats sown with dwarf peas and turnips lodged only 11 times.  In all 11 cases full crops were harvested by cutting and swathing oats into windrows.  Peas and turnips held oat stems above ground so the grain did not spoil in the mud.  (Grain on the ground cannot be harvested due to risk of contamination by pathogenic mold and bacteria).

Weedy fields can be improved by surface planting with clover or other small-seeded legumes.  Large seeded legumes like peas and beans should be drilled with no-till equipment.  The combination of native weeds and nitrogen-fixing legumes makes a cheap mixed species cover crop that will support large populations of earthworms and beneficial insects.  For biological pest control reserve 5% to 10% of cropland for native weeds.

German farmers have a long history of planting Landsberger Gemenge” = Hill Mixture = Mountain Mixture = Waste Land Mixture = multi-species forage crop sown on land unsuitable for plowing.  Typical mixes include 1 cereal or grass + 2 legumes + 1 cabbage family plant or root crop.  For example:  Winter rye + red clover + winter vetch+ forage kale or turnip.  The combination of cereal, pulse, forb, and root crops makes an ideal balanced diet for grazing animals.  Cattle gain 2.5 to 3.5 pounds daily when feeding on forage mixtures of 4 to 5 species.

Plant mixtures extend growing seasons by increasing soil and air temperatures.  Seed tall, medium and short varieties to hold warm air near soil surface.  Multiple species can raise air temperatures 10 degrees Fahrenheit and expand growing seasons by 30 to 60 days.

Related Publications:     Biblical Agronomy; Biological Agriculture in Temperate Climates; Polyculture Primer; Strip Cropping Primer; Worm Farming; Managing Weeds as Cover Crops; Earthworm Primer; Planting Maize with Living Mulches; Living Mulches for Weed Control; Crops Among the Weeds; and The Edge Effect.

Would You Like To Know More?     For more information on biological agriculture and practical polyculture please visit:  http://www.worldagriculturesolutions.com  — or —  send your questions to:  Eric Koperek, Editor, World Agriculture Solutions, 413 Cedar Drive, Moon Township, Pennsylvania, 15108 USA.

About The Author:     Mr. Koperek is a plant breeder who farms in Pennsylvania during summer and Florida over winter.  (Growing 2 generations yearly speeds development of new crop varieties).

MAIZE POLYCULTURE TRIAL 2007-2016

Abstract:     This experiment measures the productivity of a 3-species polyculture of flint corn, pole beans, and winter squash.  Heritage varieties are grown in traditional hills with fish fertilizer.  Areas between hills are untended and covered with native weeds. 

Experimental Location:     Butler County, Pennsylvania, United States of America.  40.8606 degrees North Latitude, 79.8947 degrees West Longitude.

Climate:     Butler County has a temperate climate with cold winters.  Average annual temperature = 48.75 degrees Fahrenheit = 9.3 degrees Centigrade.  Average yearly rainfall = 41.85 inches = 106.299 centimeters.  Average yearly snowfall = 37 inches = 93.98 centimeters.  Average Last Spring Frost (36 degrees Fahrenheit) = 26 May.  Average First Fall Frost (36 degrees Fahrenheit) = 23 September.  Frost Free Growing Season = 119 days (about 4 months).

Experimental Plot Size:     1/4 acre = 10,890 square feet exactly = 104 x 104 feet approximately = 10,816 square feet nominal measure.

Experimental Design:     A 1/4-acre plot was planted each year.  Crops were not rotated; hills were replanted each year in keeping with traditional Indian practice.  The experiment was repeated for 10 years (to account for weather variability between years).  10 data sets ensure reliable averages for accurate conclusions.

Soil Type:     Heavy Clay Loam

Crop Rotation:     Field was fallowed in native weeds for 7 years prior to experiment.  Hilled crops were NOT rotated.  Hills were replanted each year following traditional Indian methods.  (Historical sources record that native farmers practiced long rotations.  When soils became exhausted, hills were moved or fields abandoned).

Tillage:     There is no easy way to make Indian planting hills using conventional farm machinery.  Consequently, tree planting augers were used to dig holes 2 feet wide x 2 1/2 feet deep.  Holes were then refilled with excavated soil to make traditional mounds approximately 1 foot high.  Augers save considerable hand labor while preserving weed ground cover.  (The idea is to use native weeds as a multi-species cover crop.  Cash crops are planted in hills surrounded by weeds.  The weeds protect crops from insect pests).

Plant Density:     Hills were equidistantly spaced every 4 feet on center = 26 rows x 26 hills within each row = 676 mounds in the 1/4 acre research plot.  Each hill contained 4 maize plants seeded evenly around a circle 1-foot diameter.  When maize plants reached 2 feet high (4 to 8 leaves), 1 pole bean seed was planted 3 inches from each maize stalk.  676 hills x 4 maize plants per hill = 2,704 maize plants per 1/4 acre.  676 hills x 4 bean plants per hill = 2,704 bean plants per 1/4 acre.  Squash plants were set every other row and every other mound within alternate rows  = 8 feet x 8 feet apart = 13 rows x 13 mounds within each row = 169 squash plants per 1/4 acre.

Plants Per Acre:     10,816 maize plants; 10,816 bean plants; and 676 winter squash plants per acre.  For ease of comparison, yields are summarized in pounds per acre.

Transplant Size:     Squash transplants were 4 weeks old.  All plants were about 4 inches high.  Transplants were grown in 3 1/2 inch interior diameter peat pots filled with crumbled, dried cow manure.

Crop Varieties:     Floriani Red Flint Corn; Scarlet Runner Pole Bean; and Waltham Butternut Winter Squash.

Predominant Weed Species:     Pigweed (Amaranthus blitum), Lambs Quarters (Chenopodium album), Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare), Foxtail Millet (Setaria species), and Morning Glory (Ipomoeae species).

Weed Management:     No attempt was made to eradicate weeds.  Fields were mowed as close to ground level as practical immediately prior to seeding and transplanting.  Cut weeds were used as mulch for planting mounds, about 2 1/4 pounds (dry weight) of weed mulch per hill.  Squash vines overwhelmed most weeds.  Wild morning glory vines were the most difficult to control and some hills (about 15 percent on average) were nearly overrun.  Hand pruning was necessary to prevent crop loss.  A second mowing (when squash vines started to run) effectively suppressed weed growth, but squash and weeds battled for dominance in the “No Man’s Land” between hills.

Irrigation:     Crops were NOT irrigated, in keeping with traditional practice.  There is no historical record of Eastern North American Indians irrigating their crops, probably because there was little need to do so and also because native farmers did not have effective irrigation technology.  Carrying water in gourds, bark buckets, and clay pots is grueling labor.

Insect Control:     No active measures were taken to control insect pests.  Native weeds provided food and shelter for many beneficial insects that protected crops.

Fertilizer:     Fresh trash fish or fish scraps were too difficult to obtain in quantity, so fish meal (10 percent nitrogen, 5 percent phosphorous, 0 percent potassium) was used instead.  Each maize and squash plant received 1/3 cup (1.66 scale ounces) of fish meal mixed with the soil at planting.  This is the approximate equivalent of 119 pounds of available nitrogen and 59 pounds of phosphorous per acre.  Potassium was provided in the form of wood ashes, 6 scale ounces top dressed over each hill when squash vines were transplanted = about 1/2 ton (1,000 pounds) per acre = 70 pounds of available potash per acre.  (Fertilizing crops was NOT a common practice among North American Indians.  Native farmers learned these techniques from Europeans.  For example:  In colonial times, French farmers in Normandy fertilized their fields with herring).

10-Year Maize Yield Summary:     2,997.7 pounds per acre = 1.49885 tons per acre = 53.5 bushels per acre.  Range = 1,853 to 3,960 pounds per acre = 33.08 to 70.71 bushels per acre.  Average Yield per Plant = 4.43 ounces.  1 bushel of clean, shelled corn = 56 pounds.

10-Year Bean Yield Summary:     520.8 pounds per acre = 0.2604 ton per acre = 8.68 bushels per acre.  Range = 336 to 688 pounds per acre = 5.6 to 11.46 bushels per acre.  Average Yield per Plant = 0.048 pound = 0.768 ounce.  1 bushel of clean, dried beans = 60 pounds.

10-Year Winter Squash Yield Summary:     7,293.6 pounds per acre = 3.6468 tons per acre.  Range = 5,412 to 8,776 pounds per acre = 2.706 to 4.388 tons per acre.  Average Fruits per Acre = 3,000.  Average Fruit Weight = 2.43 pounds = 2 pounds 6.88 ounces.  Average Yield per Plant = 10.78 pounds = 10 pounds 12.48 ounces.  Average Fruits per Plant = 4 (4.43 exactly).  Note:  Because of their size, winter squash and pumpkins are not measured in bushels.

Estimated Carrying Capacity:     A 1-acre polyculture of maize, beans, and squash with hills spaced 4 feet apart feeds 1 family (4 people) for 1 year = 2.05 pounds of corn meal per person per day + 0.3567 pound (5.7 ounces) of dried beans for each person daily + 4.99 pounds of fresh winter squash per person daily.  This is more than sufficient to support a small family, especially if rations are supplemented by hunting and gathering.

Experimental Data (Maize):     Yields are recorded in pounds of clean, air dried corn per 1/4 acre.  All numbers are rounded down to the nearest whole pound.  Hills are spaced 4 x 4 feet equidistantly.  26 rows x 26 hills within each row = 676 hills x 4 corn plants per hill = 2,704 corn plants per 1/4 acre.

Year                    Maize Yield in Pounds per 1/4 Acre

2007                    463

2008                    895

2009                    590

2010                    848

2011                    556

2012                    990

2013                    934

2014                    804

2015                    689

2016                    727

10-Year Total Yield          7,496 pounds

Average Yield                   749.6 pounds per 1/4 acre

Yield Range                      463 to 990 pounds per 1/4 acre

Average Yield per Plant = 0.2772 pound = 4.43 ounces

Experimental Data (Pole Beans):     Yields are recorded in pounds of clean, air dried beans per 1/4 acre.  All numbers are rounded down to the nearest whole pound.  Hills are spaced 4 x 4 feet, equidistantly.  26 rows x 26 hills within each row = 676 hills x 4 bean plants per hill = 2,704 bean plants per 1/4 acre.

Year                    Bean Yield in Pounds per 1/4 Acre

2007                    103

2008                    146

2009                    92

2010                    132

2011                    84

2012                    161

2013                    124

2014                    172

2015                    128

2016                    160

10-Year Total Yield          1,302 pounds

Average Yield                   130.2 pounds per 1/4 acre

Yield Range                       84 to 172 pounds per 1/4 acre

Average Yield per Plant = 0.048 pound = 0.768 ounce.

Experimental Data (Winter Squash):     Yields are recorded in pounds of fresh fruit per 1/4 acre.  All numbers are rounded down to the nearest whole pound.  Squash plants are spaced every other row and every other hill within alternate rows = 13 rows x 13 hills within each row = 8 x 8 feet apart = 169 plants per 1/4 acre.

Year                    Squash Yield in Pounds per 1/4 Acre

2007                    1,353

2008                    2,138

2009                    2,025

2010                    1,497

2011                    1,446

2012                    2,140

2013                    2,040

2014                    1,669

2015                    2,194

2016                    1,732

10-Year Total Yield          18,234 pounds

Average Yield                   1,823.4 pounds per 1/4 acre

Yield Range                      1,353 to 2,194 pounds per 1/4 acre

Average Fruits per 1/4 Acre = 750

Average Fruit Weight = 2.43 pounds = 2 pounds 6.88 ounces

Average Yield per Plant = 10.78 pounds = 10 pounds 12.48 ounces

Average Fruits per Plant = 4 (4.43 exactly)

Commentary:     Traditional polycultures of corn, beans and squash are not commercially practical because planting and harvest cannot be mechanized.  Fish meal fertilizer is also un-economic because it costs more ($0.72 per pound) than most chemical or organic plant foods.  Planting nitrogen-fixing cover crops and sowing seeds in rows is far less expensive than traditional hill cultivation.

Strip cropping combines the ecological advantages of polycultures with the economic efficiency of farm machinery.  Plant narrow strips of cash crops following land contours.  (Adjust strip width to fit farm equipment).  Seed or transplant unrelated crops on adjacent strips to take advantage of edge effects.  Planting multiple species on each field increases biodiversity and greatly reduces crop pests.

Related Publications:     No-Till Hungarian Stock Squash; 2012 Tomato and Sweet Potato Polyculture Trial; and The Edge Effect.

Other Articles of Interest:     The Twelve Apostles; “Can Sunnhemp Outgrow Morning Glory?”; Worm Farming; Managing Weeds as Cover Crops; Weed Seed Meal Fertilizer; Trash Farming; Earthworm Primer; Planting Maize with Living Mulches; Living Mulches for Weed Control; Upside Down Potatoes; and Crops Among the Weeds.

Would You Like To Know More?     Please contact the Author directly if you have any questions or need additional information about modern or traditional polycultures.  Please visit:     http://www.worldagriculturesolutions.com  — or —  send an e-mail to:  http://www.worldagriculturesolutions@gmail.com  — or —  send a letter to:  Eric Koperek, Editor, World Agriculture Solutions, 413 Cedar Drive, Moon Township, Pennsylvania, 15108 United States of America.

About the Author:     Mr. Koperek is a plant breeder who farms in Pennsylvania during summer and Florida over winter.  (Growing 2 generations yearly speeds development of new crop varieties).

ORGANIC HERBICIDES

What works, what doesn’t, and what to do if you can’t spray.

The guy who invents a safe alternative to Roundup will earn millions!  Right now, there is a distressing lack of alternatives to glyphosate = Roundup.  Below is a short summation of available organic vegicides and alternative weed controls.  Choose the best formula or method for your farm.  Experiment until you obtain the degree of weed control desired.

HERBICIDE SCIENCE:     All organic herbicides work by desiccation = leaves dry out = plant death is caused by water loss.  Thus, organic herbicides perform reasonably well on ANNUAL broadleaf weeds and grasses, especially young plants less than 30 days old or 6 inches high.  Desiccant kill rates on young annuals or perennials normally range from  80% to 100%.  Mature perennial weeds (with long tap roots) and perennial grasses (with growing points below soil surface) are rarely killed by desiccant herbicides because these are contact chemicals only — the herbicide is NOT translocated to roots or other underground parts of the plant.  Spraying a desiccant herbicide will knock back perennial weeds (by burning down exposed foliage) but will not kill established plants.  Repeated applications are necessary to control perennial weeds; this is rarely economic so herbicide use must be integrated with other cultural practices to obtain desired level of weed control.  This often means rethinking how to grow and harvest crops.

COMMON LYE:     The cheapest burn-down herbicide is old fashioned lye; either sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (KOH) works equally well.  Powdered sodium lye (for example, Red Devil Lye) is a special order industrial chemical that requires a signed application statement (because sodium lye is used to make illegal drugs).  You can make your own potassium lye at home simply by leaching wood ashes with water.  If a fresh egg floats in the solution, the lye is strong enough to kill plants (or make soap).

Potassium Lye Formula by Weight:     Prepare a 45% to 50% concentration by weight of water = 0.45 to 0.50 expressed as a decimal.  Note:  1 U.S. gallon of water weighs 8.34 pounds = 3.78 kilograms.  0.45 x 8.34 pounds per gallon of water = 3.753 = 3 3/4 pounds of wood ashes per gallon.  Sift wood ash through window screening before weighing.  Mix ash and water the night before use then strain most carefully before application.

Potassium Lye Formula by Volume:     Combine 2 parts finely sifted wood ashes with 3 parts water by volume.  Mix ashes and water then let stand overnight before use.  Decant and filter wood ash lye through paper coffee filters to avoid clogging lines and spray nozzles with grit.

All herbicides are more effective if a spreading-sticking agent is mixed with the solution.  To increase weed kill rates, combine lye with 2% commercial surfactant (surface active agent) by weight or volume.  The admix helps lye solution cover and grip foliage.  If commercial surfactant is not available, substitute an equal portion of common liquid dishwashing detergent.  Addition of 2% “Polysorbate-20” (a powerful emulsifier)  makes herbicide mixtures even more deadly by stripping away protective wax coatings on plant cell walls.

>>>  Concentrated lye solution can have a pH near 14 = it’s extremely caustic = highly basic = will change soil pH if used continuously or in high volumes.  Lye herbicide is NOT recommended for use around acid-loving plants like potatoes, raspberries, cranberries, blueberries, strawberries, azaleas, laurels, rhododendrons, pine trees or other conifers (plants with needle or scale-like leaves that bear seeds in cones).  Check soil pH regularly; it may not be necessary to apply agricultural lime to fields where lye herbicide is used frequently.

>>>  Where agricultural lime is too costly, spraying sodium or potassium lye solution is a cheap way to adjust soil pH.  For example:  To bring highly acid soils into production, spray lye then plant beans.

>>>  Substitute wood ashes where agricultural limestone is unavailable or expensive.  Swap 2 parts wood ashes by weight or volume for every part of powdered limestone.  Sift wood ash through window screening before use.  Crush charcoal screenings to pass 1/4 inch hardware cloth sieve then compost with an equal or greater volume of fresh manure before applying to garden or field.

MALEIC HYDRAZIDE is a chemical growth regulator commonly used to keep potatoes from sprouting in storage, and tobacco plants from suckering.  Maleic hydrazide is NOT an herbicide in the conventional sense of the word (although it does kill plants if used in high concentration).  Use maleic hydrazide to SLOW weed growth; sprayed weeds are stunted rather than killed.  Weeds are knocked back just enough to give crop plants a competitive advantage.  Translation:  If weeds are dwarfed then there is no need to kill them.

Never use the word “herbicide” when talking or writing to the Government about maleic hydrazide.  The official viewpoint is that maleic hydrazide is a plant growth regulator, NOT an herbicide.  Use the word “herbicide” and you may end up having to submit a ton of regulatory paperwork!

Maleic Hydrazide Formula by Volume:     Commercial maleic hydrazide is sold as a 30.3% concentrated solution by volume containing 2.25 pounds of chemical in 1 gallon of water (26.97841% concentration by weight).  Apply 1 to 1.33 gallons of chemical solution in 30 gallons of water per acre to control sprouting in potatoes.  This manufacturer recommended concentration gives you a place to start.  [2.25 pounds chemical per gallon of commercial concentrate / 220.2 pounds of water (30 gallons) in spray tank] x 100 = 0.89928% concentration by weight.  Adjust vegicide concentration until desired level of weed control is obtained.

Maleic Hydrazide Formula by Weight:     To stunt both annual and perennial broadleaf weeds and grasses, apply 0.6% pure maleic hydrazide by weight = six tenths of one percent = 0.6 / 100 = 0.006 expressed as a decimal.  For example:  0.006 x 1,000 grams per liter of water = 6 grams of maleic hydrazide per liter or approximately 0.21 scale ounce per quart of water (6 grams / 28.35 grams per ounce = 0.2116402 scale ounce = 0.21 scale ounce or about 1/5th scale ounce of maleic hydrazide per quart of water).  This concentration will control (don’t say kill)  even multiflora rose and other invasive shrubs and trees.  Maleic hydrazide is fast becoming a favorite weed control chemical because it is safe to handle, cheap, and effective.

AMMONIUM NONANOATE is a synthetic chemical, a detergent-like surfactant that kills weeds by dissolving the wax coating on cell walls.  Damaged cells leak water = weeds die of dehydration.  Think of ammonium nonanoate as a strong soap solution; wear rubber gloves and protective goggles to keep chemical off skin and away from eyes.  Spray herbicide at night to avoid harming most beneficial insects.

Soaps, detergents, and other surface active agents = surfactants kill insects by clogging their breathing tubes.  Soap-sprayed insects die of suffocation.  Thus, it is best to spray ammonium nonanoate and other herbicidal soaps at night to avoid killing as many beneficial insects as possible.

Ammonium Nonanoate Formula by Weight:     Ammonium nonanoate is sold as a 40% concentrated solution by weight.  Mix not more than 6% by weight of commercial concentrated solution in 1 gallon of water = 2.4% by weight of ammonium nonanoate in 1 gallon of water.  1 U.S. gallon of water weighs 8.34 pounds = 3.78 kilograms.  6% = 6 / 100 = 0.06 expressed as a decimal.  0.06 herbicide concentrate x 8.34 pounds per gallon of water = 0.5004 pounds of herbicide concentrate x 16 ounces per pound = 8.0064 = 8 scale ounces of commercial concentrate in 1 gallon of water.  (This is approximately equal to 8 fluid ounces or 1/2 cup of ammonium nonanoate concentrate in 1 gallon of water).

Note:  This chemical is not currently approved for use on organic farms in the United States.  Ammonium nonanoate is a type of industrial strength soap.

SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE (SLS) is a synthetic detergent commonly found in shampoo, toothpaste, and household cleaning products.  Sodium lauryl sulfate is a contact herbicide that works by stripping the wax coating from cell walls = leaves lose water then plants die of dehydration.  As with any strong soap, wear rubber gloves (to prevent skin from drying out) and safety goggles (to keep detergent out of eyes).

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Formula by Weight:     Mix 5% to 20% dry chemical by weight in pure water.  1 U.S. gallon of water weighs 8.34 pounds = 3.78 kilograms.  5% = 5 / 100 = 0.05 expressed as a decimal.  0.05 chemical concentration x 8.34 pounds per gallon of water = 0.417 pounds of SLS x 16 ounces per pound = 6.672 = 6 2/3 scale ounces of sodium lauryl sulfate per gallon of water (minimum concentration).  20% = 20 / 100 = 0.20 expressed as a decimal.  0.20 chemical concentration x 8.34 pounds per gallon of water = 1.668 pounds of SLS x 16 ounces per pound = 26.688 scale ounces = 1 pound 10 2/3 scale ounces of sodium lauryl sulfate per gallon of water (maximum concentration).

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Formula by Volume:     For commercial concentrated solutions, mix 20% concentrate by volume with water.  1 U.S. gallon = 128 fluid ounces = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups = 256 Tablespoons = 768 teaspoons.  20% = 20 / 100 = 0.20 expressed as a decimal.  0.20 SLS concentrate x 768 teaspoons = 153.6 teaspoons = 51.2 Tablespoons = 3.2 cups = 1 1/2 pints + 3 Tablespoons + 2/3 teaspoon = about 3 1/4 cups herbicide concentrate in 1 gallon of water.  Another way to figure this is:  128 fluid ounces per gallon x 0.20 herbicide concentration = 25.6 fluid ounces of herbicide concentrate needed  / 8 fluid ounces per cup = 3.2 cups = about 3 1/4 cups of SLS concentrate per gallon of water.

SLS Application Rate per Acre:     Apply 2.5 gallons to 7.5 gallons of diluted herbicide per thousand square feet of farm or garden = 109 gallons to 327 gallons per acre.  Note:  Herbicidal soaps are much more effective when powerful emulsifiers and surfactants are added to the mix.

>>>  There are many different kinds of herbicidal soap.  All work the same way and should be diluted to the same concentration:  5% to 20% dry chemical by water weight, or 20% liquid concentrate by volume.  Adjust concentration and application rate as needed to kill target species.  Weeds with hairy or waxy leaves are harder to kill than less protected plants.

D-LIMONENE:     Citrus rinds contain volatile essential oils (orange oil, lemon oil, grapefruit oil, et cetera).  The largest chemical component of all citrus oils is d-limonene, a fragrant chemical and powerful surface active agent = surfactant that quickly dissolves fats, oils, and waxes.  D-limonene is a common ingredient in most natural home cleaning products.  D-limonene is also used to wash greasy automobile parts and as a safe replacement for mineral spirits (petroleum turpentine).  Use d-limonene just like any other strong detergent (ammonium nonanoate or sodium lauryl sulfate, for example).  All herbicidal soaps work by dissolving the waxy coating on plant cell walls.  Damaged leaf cells leak water then plants die of dehydration.

Pure D-Limonene Formula:     Mix 55% d-limonene by weight in water.  Mix 50% orange oil (or other citrus oil), clove oil, cinnamon oil, or lemongrass oil by weight in water.  Essential oil concentration can be decreased to 30% by weight if Polysorbate-20 (emulsifier) and spreading / sticking agent (surfactant) are added to the herbicide solution.

D-Limonene Formula with Emulsifier & Surfactant:     Combine 30% limonene + 10% emulsifier (Polysorbate-20) + 10% commercial surfactant (wetting agent) + 50% pure water = 100% total by weight or volume.  Use baking soda to adjust solution pH to 5 or above.  Apply up to 100 gallons (approximately 400 liters) of diluted herbicide per acre (about 0.40 hectare).

D-limonene can also be used in small quantities as a surfactant (spreading / sticking agent) in other herbicide or insecticide formulations.  Add one-eighth percent to one-quarter percent = 0.125% to 0.25% = 0.00125 to 0.0025 expressed as a decimal = 1 to 2 pints per 100 gallons or approximately 2.5 milliliters per liter of water.

D-limonene makes an economic herbicide provided you live near an orange juice processing plant.  Prices rise as distance from citrus groves increases.

ACETIC ACID = VINEGAR:     For commercial farms concentrated vinegar = 10% to 20% acetic acid is required.  For household gardens, common white table vinegar (5% acetic acid) will suffice.  Strong acids (concentrated vinegar) and strong bases (sodium or potassium lye) both kill weeds by rupturing cell walls = leaves leak water till plants die of thirst.

Vinegar Herbicide Formula by Weight for Farming:     Combine 20% acetic acid (liquid) + 5% citric acid (powder) + 2% commercial surfactant (spreading / sticking agent) + 73% pure water = 100 total parts by weight.  Note:  To save freight costs, order glacial acetic acid = pure, undiluted acetic acid in 1 gallon glass bottles.  Mix 1 gallon of glacial acetic acid with 9 gallons of water to make 10 gallons of concentrated vinegar (10% acetic acid) solution.  Mix 1 gallon of glacial acetic acid with 4 gallons of water to make 5 gallons of concentrated vinegar (20% acetic acid) solution.

Vinegar Herbicide Formula by Volume for Gardening:     Combine 5 cups of common white vinegar (5% acetic acid) + 1 cup of bottled lemon juice (3% to 8% citric acid) + 4 Tablespoons of dish washing detergent (to help herbicide stick to leaves) = 6 1/4 total cups by volume.

For best results, spray on a warm, sunny day when weed leaves are dry.  Apply herbicide solution generously so that leaves are thoroughly wet.

Caution!  Concentrated vinegar is a hazardous chemical, a strong acid that will burn skin and eyes.  Wear rubber gloves and safety goggles.  Do not breathe concentrated vinegar vapors.  Work outdoors with the wind at your back = blowing away from you.  Wash skin or eyes with pure, distilled water if necessary.

CHELATED IRON:     FeHEDTA (Iron-Hydroxy-Ethylene-Diamine-Triacetic-Acid) in high concentrations (26.5% by weight) will kill broadleaf weeds in turf grasses.  This herbicide works well but is most costly = far too expensive for agricultural use.

SUNFLOWER SEED HULLS:     Some plants produce natural herbicides.  Sunflower seed shells can be used as mulch to retard weed growth.  Apply 1 to 2 inches of sunflower seed hulls around ornamental or edible plants.  Note:  Herbicidal effect may inhibit growth of flowers and crops!  Perform small plot trials before spreading large amounts of sunflower hulls.

BLACK WALNUT HULLS & WOOD CHIPS:     Black walnuts produce natural herbicides that kill some plants but not others.  For example:  Tomatoes are severely stunted or killed by walnut herbicide.  Test ornamental or crop plants first before spreading mulch of black walnut hulls or black walnut wood chips.

SMOTHER CROPS:     Plants that grow faster than weeds and cast dense shade make ideal smother crops.  Multiple smother crops (planted in sequence) are often used to clear especially weedy fields or to eradicate hard-to-kill perennial weeds with deep tap roots.  For best results, do not plow fields after growing smother crops; tillage stimulates weed germination.  Broadcast small grains or turnips over standing vegetation then immediately mow or roll to cover and protect crop seed.   Alternatively, mow or roll smother crop then set seeds or transplants through surface mulch using no-till equipment.  If smother crop is tilled into the ground (as a green manure) immediately broadcast clover or other legume seed to blanket field as a living mulch.  Fields must be covered with useful plants at all times or weeds will regain foothold.  Popular smother crops include Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and Sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense)  in temperate climates, and Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea) in tropical and semi-tropical zones.

Buckwheat Smother Crop:     Fagopyrum esculentum grows 0.75 to 1.25 inches per day reaching a mature height of 50 inches (3 tons of dry matter per acre) in 6 to 8 weeks.  Blooming starts around 32 days and seeds mature in 10 to 12 weeks.  Mow, crimp, or rototill buckwheat when plants are in full bloom, about 60 days after planting.  Do not let plants mature and drop seeds or buckwheat will become a weed in the following crop.  Seed 32 to 40 pounds per acre for small seeded varieties; 50 to 72 pounds per acre for large seeded varieties.  Ideal plant population is 700,000 plants per acre = 16 seeds per square foot.  Test weights vary from 44 pounds (large seeds) to 52 pounds (small seeds) per bushel.  Approximate seed weight varies from 29 to 37 grams (1.02 to 1.30 scale ounces) per 1,000 seeds = 12,200 (large seeds) to 15,600 (small seeds) per pound.

Sudangrass Smother Crop:      Sorghum sudanense grows fast and produces natural herbicides.  Translation:  Weeds are overwhelmed.  Sudan grass grows 1/2 to 2 inches daily if soil is warm and moist.  For best results sow when soil temperatures reach 65 degrees Fahrenheit ~ 18 degrees Centigrade and irrigate with 1 to 2 inches of water weekly.  Broadcast 30 to 50 pounds, drill 35 pounds, or precision seed 13.5 pounds of pure, live seed per acre.  Average seed weight ~ 42,300 seeds per pound.  Plant seeds 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches deep in rows 7 to 14 inches apart.  Under ideal conditions Sudan grass can reach 8 to 9 feet mature height in 8 to 10 weeks.  If temperature and moisture are unfavorable, Sudan grass may take 80 to 100 days to mature.  If desired, Sudan grass may be mowed about 55 days after seeding when plants are 20 to 30 inches tall.  Leave 8 inches of stubble to help grass regrow quickly.  In temperate climates Sudan grass may be cut 2 or 3 times yearly.  6 to 8 cuttings are possible in tropical and sub-tropical areas if soil is fertile and water plentiful.  For each cutting expect 2 to 3 tons of green mulch per acre at 70% to 75% moisture content.  Expect 10 to 12 tons of green chop per acre each year under average conditions.  Under ideal conditions annual production may reach 16 to 24 tons (fresh weight) ~ 4,000 to 6,000 pounds dry weight per acre.

Sudan grass has an enormous fibrous root system that can penetrate 6 to 8 feet into the subsoil.  This huge mass of organic matter restores life and productivity to “tired soils” and “sick fields”.  Sudan grass is one of the best cover crops for weed control and soil improvement.

Sunn Hemp Smother Crop:     Crotalaria juncea is a fast growing nitrogen fixing legume.  In temperate regions with 90 or more days of warm weather, Sunn Hemp grows 1 to 1 1/4 inches per day, reaching 6 feet high and flowering approximately 60 to 70 days from seeding.  In tropical climates some varieties of Sunn Hemp grow over 20 feet tall.  Broadcast 20 to 50 pounds or drill 15 to 40 pounds of pure, live seed per acre in 6 to 36 inch rows.  For precision seeders, use a 60-cell small sugar beet plate and plant 9 pounds per acre in 15 inch rows, or 5 pounds per acre in 30 inch rows.  (Remember to inoculate seed with nitrogen fixing cowpea rhizobia).  Sow seeds 1/2 to 1 inch deep.  Average seed weight = 18,000 to 35,000 seeds per kilogram ~ 15,000 to 33,000 seeds per pound.  Average test weight = 60 pounds per bushel.  Sunn Hemp is amazingly productive when planted in moist, fertile soils.  Expect 8 to 18 tons of green mulch (4 to 9 tons dry weight) per acre at 50% moisture content 10 to 12 weeks after seeding.  Under average conditions Sunn Hemp yields 6.25 to 7 tons of green chop in 60 days = weeds are buried under a great mass of stems and leaves.

There are many aggressive, rapid-growth plants suitable for smothering weeds.  Forage Radish (Raphaus sativus variety longipinnatus) and Forage Maize (Zea mays) are two additional examples.  Choose species and varieties best adapted to local soil and climate.

COMMON CEREAL RYE:     Grain rye (Secale cereale) produces natural herbicides.  The best way to employ this herbicidal effect is to grow a 5 to 6 foot high cover crop of rye and then cut it down with a sickle-bar mower (or use a roller-crimper) when the grass starts to flower or no later than the soft dough stage of seed development.  Leave cut rye straw where it falls.  Set pumpkins or other transplants through the rye mulch.  Alternatively, use a no-till seeder with a fluted coulter to plant through the mulch.  If desired, Dutch white clover (Trifolium repens) can be broadcast over the field the same day crops are transplanted.  Clover seedlings fill any gaps in the mulch providing 90% or better weed control under average field conditions.

You can run a 25-acre vegetable farm with nothing more than a common lawn mower and a hand-cranked cyclone seeder.  Broadcast lawn clover everywhere then transplant into the living mulch.  I can’t think of an easier way to operate a truck farm or market garden.

DUTCH WHITE CLOVER:     Trifolium repens is NOT herbicidal but it does make a good living mulch that can provide effective weed control in transplanted crops and winter grains.  Dutch white clover only grows 6 to 8 inches tall so it makes an ideal living mulch for any crop that grows a foot or more high.  For best results, transplant crops directly into standing Dutch white clover.  If desired, clover can be mowed first to give transplants a little more time to get established.  Sow clover at the same time that you plant winter wheat, barley, oats, and rye.  If convenient, Dutch white clover can be broadcast over established crops when they are young (6 to 8 inches tall) or later in the season (a few weeks before harvest).  Note:  If Dutch clover seed is not available substitute Crimson Clover (Trifolium incarnatum), Sub Clover (Trifolium subterraneum), or a low-growing variety of Medium Red Clover (Trifolium pratense).  A good stand of clover will blot out most competing plants providing 90% or better weed-free fields.

OVERLAPPING ROTATIONS:     Sometimes called “interseeding”, this technique uses the competitive ability of crop plants to suppress weeds.  The idea is to top seed the following crop several weeks before the previous crop is harvested.  This gives crop seeds time to germinate and become established.  When the overstory nurse crop is harvested, the understory crop already has at least 2 weeks head start over competing plants.  In nature, possession is 9 tenths of the law; the first population established will predominate.  By overlapping rotations, weeds never get a toehold.

Successful weed control requires careful timing, zero tillage, pelleted seed, and Dutch white clover (Trifolium repens) living mulch.  Always overseed at least 2 weeks before harvest so seeds have time to germinate ahead of any weeds.  Never disturb the soil for any reason; any tillage will encourage weed growth.  Always use pelleted seed; coated seeds have better germination and seedling survival.  Always use Dutch white clover to check weed growth; clover replaces herbicides and mechanical cultivation.  One last important detail:  Return all crop residues to the field and scatter randomly to form a thin, open mulch; a light blanket of straw or leaves is necessary to protect seedlings and feed the soil.

Rice-Winter Grain & Clover Rotation:     This is the basis of Masanobu Fukuoka’s “Do Nothing Farming” system.  [See:  The One-Straw Revolution, Rodale Press, 1978].  (1)  In fall, sow pelleted winter barley or winter rye seed with Dutch white clover.  (2)  A few weeks before winter grain harvest, broadcast pelleted rice seed over standing winter cereal.  (3)  Immediately after harvesting winter grain, scatter straw randomly over field to protect germinating rice seedlings.  (4)  A few weeks before rice harvest, top seed pelleted clover and winter rye or winter barley over standing rice.  (5)  Immediately after rice harvest, scatter rice straw randomly across field to protect germinating winter grain seedlings.  (6)  Repeat rotation indefinitely; the system works with any kind of summer and winter grain.  Choose crops to fit growing season length.  Note:  Continuous cereal rotations with understory clover companion crops place severe competitive pressures on native weed species.  Provided ground is not tilled, fields remain 95% weed free without herbicides or any other weed control methods.

Hogs make great rototillers provided they do not have rings in their snouts.  Ringed hogs cannot root.

Clover-Wheat-Turnips Rotation:     15th century Dutch farmers combined free-range pig ranching with no-till agronomy to make a low-cost sustainable agriculture system called the Clover-Wheat-Turnips Rotation:  (1)  Enclose a field of Dutch white clover.  (2)  Turn pigs loose in fenced pasture.  Pigs will uproot clover eliminating need for plowing and harrowing.  (3)  Broadcast wheat seed onto pig tilled earth.  (4)  Drive sheep back and forth across field; sheep will stomp wheat seeds into ground.  (5)  When wheat starts to head out, overseed grain with turnips.  (6)  A few weeks before turnip harvest broadcast clover seed over field.  Clover protects and fertilizes soil until cycle repeats in spring.  This rotation reliably yields 40 bushels of wheat (2,400 pounds) per acre = 2,694 kilograms per hectare under European weather conditions without irrigation, diesel fuel, synthetic fertilizer, herbicides, insecticides, or fungicides.

Overlapping crop rotations are remarkably stable — farmers have been using legume-grain-root crop rotations for 700 years.  Many other rotations are possible, with or without livestock or machinery.  Choose cash crops most suited to your local soil and climate.  Use cover crops or forage crops to fill any gaps in the planting season.  Soil must be covered with growing plants at all times = 365 days yearly.  As long as continuous vegetation is maintained fields will remain 95% weed free and crop yields sustained indefinitely.

MULCH-IN-PLACE:     It is impractical to mulch large fields by hand because the volumes required are too large.  The solution is to grow a mulch crop then kill it by mowing or crimping.  Seeds or transplants are then set through the surface mulch using no-till equipment specifically designed to work in high-residue “trashy” fields.  Alternatively, harvest the mulch crop with a silage chopper then apply with a mulch spreader; this technique is ideal for orchards, vineyards, nurseries, and berry plantations where labor costs are high.

The best mulch crops are quick growing grasses that yield high-tonnages per acre.  Grasses are preferred because straw decomposes slowly and forms a nearly impenetrable mat that blocks light and prevents weed emergence.  Fields need at least 4 to 5 tons = 8,000 to 10,000 pounds of straw mulch to obtain 90% weed control.  A 5 to 6 foot stand of grain rye (Secale cereale) produces 4 to 5 tons of long straw which forms a thick, weed-blocking blanket over the soil.  Forage maize (Zea mays) is even better:  It grows 12 to 15 feet high and produces 18 tons = 36,000 pounds of mulch in only 70 days from seeding to harvest.  100 to 120 day forage maize yields up to 30 tons = 60,000 pounds of mulch per acre.  30 tons of corn stalks per acre will obliterate any weed problem for 2 seasons or longer.  Top seed maize mulch with a low growing clover and fields will remain at least 95% weed free.

ZERO INPUT AGRICULTURE:     There are many terms for this technique (No-Kill Cropping, Natural Farming, Do Nothing Agriculture, Zero Budget Natural Agriculture, Minimum Effort Agronomy, Minimal Energy Agriculture, Zero Petroleum Agriculture, et alia).  The idea is to plant seeds into standing vegetation without tillage, herbicides, fertilizers, irrigation, or any other input.  Crops (usually small grains like wheat, oats, barley, and rye) can be sown directly into pastures, hay fields, range lands, or shortly before a crop is harvested (or immediately after a crop is harvested).  The keys to success are timing and seeding method.  The best time to plant is when grains would naturally reseed themselves (usually in the dry or dormant season).  The best way to plant is to disturb the soil as little as possible.  (The more soil is tilled = broken, the more weeds will germinate).  The best methods are to broadcast seed into standing vegetation (pelleted seeds greatly increase seedling survival) or to plant in shallow slits made by a no-till seeder.  Other than planting and harvest, no attention is paid to the crop.  In years with good rainfall, yields are typically 60% to 70% of conventionally grown crops.  In dry years crops are often not worth harvesting for grain (but do produce substantial quantities of forage or surface mulch to protect fields and increase soil organic matter).

Zero input agriculture is the best way to grow small grains where the climate is dry or soils are poor.  The method yields a surprisingly high return on investment because there is little financial risk (only the cost of seeding in a bad year, or the costs of seeding and harvest in a good year).  Because input costs are minimal, profit margins are high.  Thus, zero input agriculture can produce more income than conventional grain farming.

“No-Kill Cropping” is the wave of the future, a convergence of old-school mechanical agronomy with new-school biological agriculture.  The synthesis of these disciplines creates a new way of thinking about farming, an agro-ecological approach where problems are solved by nature rather than by petrochemicals.  Here, the idea is to grow crops and weeds together in mutual symbiosis, rather than spending vast sums to eradicate all competing plant life.

The first time I proposed planting weeds as cover crops, half my audience walked out of the conference room (I think they all worked for Monsanto).

WEEDS AS COVER CROPS:     Weeds make excellent ground covers well worth the cost of seed, fertilizer and irrigation.  Most fields already have sufficient weed populations.  Where land is barren or scraped down to subsoil, broadcast grain elevator screenings liberally.  Elevator screenings are cheap (often free) and contain many weed seeds.

As I write this paper (Monday 1 June 2015) it is almost time to transplant tomatoes in Butler County, Pennsylvania (40.8607 degrees North Latitude, 79.8947 degrees West Longitude).  My fields are a green sea of weeds.  Pigweed (Amaranthus blitum), Lambs Quarters (Chenopodium album), and Common Thistle (Cirsium vulgare) are already 2 to 3 feet high, a respectable nurse crop measuring about 2.5 tons of dry matter per acre.

After lunch I will mow or roll strips through the weeds, overseed each planting strip with Dutch White Clover (Trifolium repens), set 8-inch tall determinate tomato transplants every 4 feet, then run drip irrigation hose down the rows.  Most of the field remains covered by weeds which I leave undisturbed.  I will walk the field once or twice before harvest to rescue the odd tomato plant that gets too crowded by weeds.  A pair of pruning shears quickly dispatches offending vegetation.  The crop gets no other attention until destructive harvest which yields 8 pounds of Number 1 marketable fruit per plant at $0.60 per pound wholesale price for “spray-less tomatoes” (21,000 pounds = 10.5 tons per acre = $12,600 gross income per acre).  That is good money for very little labor and minimal investment (no plowing, staking, fertilizer, herbicides, pesticides, or fungicides).

Lawnmower Farming:     Find the weediest field possible = vigorous growth 5 to 6 feet tall.  Mow widely spaced strips through the weeds.  If possible, run irrigation tape down the rows.  Set transplants then mulch 12 inches deep with cut weeds — this is a form of cold composting known as sheet composting.  Green weeds contain twice the nutrients of fresh dairy cow manure.  Chopped vegetation rots quickly releasing nutrients to feed crops.  Leave remaining weeds standing to provide food and shelter for beneficial insects.  Lawnmower farming does not use land efficiently but it does grow crops cheaply = without tillage, herbicides, fertilizer, or pesticides.

Mow-And-Blow:     On large farms and plantations forage choppers replace common lawnmowers.  Modify delivery chute to deposit chopped vegetation into convenient windrows.  Set transplants and drip irrigation hose down the windrows.  Use mow-and-blow with any kind of vegetation:  Weeds, forage grasses, mulch crops, and mixed species cover crops all do well.  For best results choose plants that produce large yields of biomass = stems and leaves per acre.  If possible, irrigate and fertilize fields to increase mulch yields.

It pays to feed and water weeds.  Weeds use and recycle nutrients efficiently so a little fertilizer creates rampant growth = more biomass for mulch and soil improvement.  For best results apply dilute fertilizer in irrigation water.

>>>     The trick to using weeds as cover crops is to manage them just like any other conventional mulch crop or green manure.  Kill the weed crop by mowing, crimping, or spraying then seed or transplant through the mulch with no-till equipment.  Think of weeds as a mixed cover crop that costs nothing to seed!

>>>     Set aside an acre or two and experiment growing crops in weeds.  The first thing you will discover is that pests do not like weedy fields.  Crops grown in weeds rarely need sprayed.  Fertilizer costs can also be reduced or eliminated because weeds efficiently capture and recycle nutrients.  Water costs also decrease because weeds protect crops from drying winds.

>>>     The only disadvantage to farming weeds is that your neighbors will think you are crazy.  Count your profits and let the naysayers believe as they wish.

Martian Thinking:  “See what the Earthlings are doing, turn 180 degrees in the opposite direction, then work back to what makes sense”.

MARTIAN AGRICULTURE = WEEDS ARE PROFITABLE!     99% of farmers think that weeds are bad.  Eric thinks differently.  I encourage weeds to grow in my fields.  For example:  Why use herbicides in a small grain crop?  Herbicides cost money to apply (and even more money is lost because the crop cannot be sold as “natural” or “organic”).  Modern seed cleaners easily separate weed seeds from crop grains.  Weed seed meal makes ideal organic fertilizer.  (For highest profits sell weed seed meal in 40 pound bags to city gardeners).  Wild oats can be separated from weed seeds and processed into high nutritional value cereal (50% protein rolled oats).  Growing weeds in my grain means that I don’t have to apply insecticides (so I save even more money).  Weeds provide pollen and nectar for bees and other beneficial insects.  Weeds also support primary and alternate hosts for predatory and parasitical insects.  (You need to maintain small populations of “bad” bugs in order to sustain healthy populations of “good” bugs).  Having lots of weeds around helps balance farm ecology (which saves even more money on pest control in other cash crops).  And don’t forget that weeds have extensive root systems that break up plow pans  (compacted soil layers) and increase soil organic matter.  The way Eric looks at this is:  What I lose in grain yield (to weed competition) I gain in lower input costs and higher-margin specialty products.  Even in bad years, Eric always makes more money than his neighbors.  Why?  Because Eric is not looking to win a blue ribbon for maximum yield at the County Fair.  Eric measures success at the bottom line.  He who has more money in his bank account wins!

RELATED PUBLICATIONS:     Trash Farming, No-Till Hungarian Stock Squash, Planting Maize with Living Mulches, Living Mulches for Weed Control, and Crops Among the Weeds.

WOULD YOU LIKE TO KNOW MORE?     Contact the Author directly if you have any questions or need additional information.

Please visit:     http://www.agriculturesolutions.wordpress.com  — or —  http://www.worldagriculturesolutions.wordpress.com  — or —  send your questions to:  Agriculture Solutions, 413 Cedar Drive, Moon Township, Pennsylvania 15108, United States of America  — or —  send an e-mail to:  Eric Koperek = worldagriculturesolutions@gmail.com

ABOUT THE AUTHOR:     Mr. Koperek is a plant breeder who farms in Pennsylvania during summer and Florida during winter.  (Growing 2 generations each year speeds development of new crop varieties).