CROP ROTATION PRIMER

Problem:     Growing the same crop in the same field year after year weakens the soil and promotes harmful insects and diseases.

Solution:     Plant a different crop each year.  Alternating unrelated species allows soil to rest and breaks reproduction cycles of diseases and pests.

Example:     Rather than sowing Wheat — Wheat — Wheat, grow Red Clover — Potatoes — Wheat.

Rotation Science:     Each species roots at different depth and takes varying amounts of minerals.  Rotating crops gives soil time to replenish these nutrients.  Every variety has its own cast of villainous insects and debilitating diseases.  Alternating different plants each season starves harmful organisms by denying them hosts on which to feed.

How To Do It:     Following is a list of strict rotation rules.  Obey these instructions and your crops will thrive.  Ignore the rules and you will spend unpleasant sums for costly pesticides, nematicides, and fungicides.

Rule-Of-Thumb:     Never follow a crop with a similar or botanically related species.  Thus:

Rule:     Never follow a grain crop with a grain crop.  Examples:  Oats & Wheat.  Maize & Barley.  Note:  This rule applies to all true cereals = grass crops.

Rule:     Never follow a leaf crop with a leaf crop.  Examples:  Spinach & Lettuce.  Cabbage & Chard.

Corollary:     Never follow a broad leaf plant with a broad leaf plant if there is a better alternative.  Example:  Sunflower & Collards.  Sunflower & Millet is a better choice (broad leaf plant followed by a narrow leaf = grass plant).  This rule is not always easy to follow but keep it in mind especially if nematodes are a problem.  Grasses suppress most nematodes.

Good Practice:     Rotate nematode resistant crops where these parasites cause economic losses:  Asparagus, Arugula, Barley, Broccoli, Cabbage, Castor Bean, Collards, Cowpea, Crimson Clover, Grasses (Poaceae), Hairy Vetch (winter vetch), Jack Bean, Joint Vetch, Kale, Lupine, Maize (corn), Marigold (Tagetes species), Millet, Mustard Greens, Mustard Seed, Oats, Partridge Pea, Rapeseed (canola), Rice, Rye, Sesame, Showy Crotalaria, Sorghum, Sudan Grass, Sunn Hemp, Velvet Bean, Wheat.

Rule:     Never follow a root crop with a root crop.  Examples:  Carrots & Potatoes.  Onions & Sugar Beets.  Note:  All roots, tubers, corms, and bulbs are called “root crops”.

Rule:     Never follow a fruit crop with a fruit crop.  Examples:  Tomatoes & Peppers.  Watermelons & Gourds.  Cucumbers & Eggplants.

Rule:     Never follow a seed crop with a seed crop.  Examples:  Buckwheat & Sesame.  Caraway & Fennel.  Note:  “Seed Crops” include “pseudo-cereals” (Quinoa & Amaranth) and “Oil Seeds” (Safflower, Flax, Sunflower).

Rule:     Never follow a flower crop with a flower crop.  Examples:  Poppies & Zinnias.  Marigolds & Nasturtiums.

Rule:     Never follow a vine crop with a vine crop.  Examples:  Gourds & Pumpkins.  Cucumbers & Squash.  Note:  Some rotation rules overlap.  This repetition is deliberate.  Gourds, pumpkins, squash, and cucumbers are fruit crops, vine crops, and in the same botanical family = 3 reasons not to follow these crops in close rotation.

Rule:     Never follow crops sharing common diseases or insect pests.  Example:  Tomatoes & Watermelons are both susceptible to anthracnose.

Rule-Of-Thumb:     Highly aromatic plants = herbs “cleanse” the soil.  Examples:  Basil, Oregano, Sage, and Thyme.  This rule dates back to the Middle Ages and is especially useful for market gardens and other small spaces.  If you cannot think of a better rotation follow cash crops with herbs or strongly scented flowers like Marigolds.

Rule:     Alternate legumes with cash crops whenever practical.  Examples:  Red Clover & Sweet Corn.  Crimson Clover & Cabbage.  Frost Beans & Green Peppers.  Why buy costly synthetic fertilizer when you can grow nitrogen-fixing legumes?  Let nature pay your fertilizer bills!

Corollary:     Plant legumes with cash crops whenever practical.  Growing 2 or more species together is called polyculture.  Examples:  Pumpkins & Dutch White Clover.  Barley & Chickling Vetch.  Sweet Corn & Pinto Beans.  Cotton & Crimson Clover.  Potatoes & Frost Beans.  Seed multiple species in the same row, in alternate rows, or broadcast together.  For best results use short or non-climbing legumes that will not interfere with harvesting equipment.

Rule:     Use 7-year rotations whenever practical.  Example:  Flax — Sweet Clover — Wheat — Lentils — Rapeseed (canola) — Pinto Beans — Sunflower.  Long rotations are essential to control insects and disease organisms that live in the soil.

Rule:     Alternate cash crops with forage crops whenever practical.  Examples:  Safflower — Winter Rye & Winter Vetch & Forage Turnips.  Winter Barley & Austrian Winter Peas & Tillage Radish — Sunflower.  Forage Maize & Velvet Bean — fall Broccoli or other cabbage family crops.

Good Practice:     German farmers have a long history of planting Landsberger Gemenge” = Hill Mixture = Mountain Mixture = Waste Land Mixture = multi-species forage crops sown on land unsuitable for plowing.  Typical mixes include 1 cereal or grass + 2 legumes + 1 cabbage family plant or root crop.  For example:  Winter Rye + Red Clover + Winter Vetch + Forage Kale or Turnips.  This combination of cereal, legume, forb, and root crops makes a balanced diet ideal for grazing animals.  Cattle gain 2.5 to 3.5 pounds daily when feeding on forage mixtures of 4 or 5 species.

Historical Note:     Farmers in the Middle Ages planted “The Twelve Apostles” = a mixed species forage crop with 4 grains + 4 legumes + 4 root or broad leaf crops.

Rule:     Practice sabbatical rotation whenever possible:  Let fields rest every seventh year.  Grow weeds or multiple species cover crops to restore soil structure and fertility.  Example:  Caraway Seed — Red Clover — Sunflower — Berseem Clover — Winter Rye — Soy Beans — Mixed Grass & Alfalfa Hay Crop.

Rule:     Grow crops in narrow strips rather than large fields.  Plant adjacent strips with unrelated species.  Adjust strip widths to fit planting and harvesting machinery.  For best results strips should not exceed 200 feet wide on flat land or 50 feet wide on hills or slopes.  Example:  4 rows of Sweet Corn — 4 rows of Snap Beans — 4 rows of Sunflower — 4 rows of Sweet Potatoes . . . .  Note how tall crops alternate with short crops.  This increases light penetration into the canopy and greatly reduces pest populations.

Rule:     Plant cash crops with companion plants whenever practical.  Use short cover crops that will not compete with taller cash crops.  Example:  Oats & Forage Peas & Turnips.  Harvest oats with a “stripper header” then graze peas & turnips.  Historical Note:  Farmers in the Middle Ages grew polycrops called The Holy Trinity = 1 cereal grain + 1 legume + 1 root crop.

Rule:     Include multiple species cover crops in farm rotations whenever practical.  Use multi-species cover crops just like legume cover crops.  Mixed species cover crops and legumes can be freely substituted in any crop rotation.  Growing multiple species cover crops is the best way to improve soil tilth and increase soil organic matter.

Good Practice:     Experience has shown that mixed species cover crops effectively control pests and diseases.  However, it is best to be cautious.  Thus, a corn and soybean farmer should not include either maize or soy in his cover crops.  This principle applies to all cash and cover crops.

Rule-Of-Thumb:     Mixtures of plants grow better than isolated species.  full synergistic effects require at least 8 cover crop species.  There is a certain minimum number of species that must be present before soil biology reaches maximum activity.  this “tipping point” appears to vary depending on location and plant varieties.  Some farmers include 30 species in their cover crop mixes.

Generic Cover Crop Mixture:     2 warm season grasses + 2 warm season legumes + 2 warm season broad leaf plants + 2 cool season grasses + 2 cool season legumes + 2 cool season broad leaf plants + 2 or more root crops = 14 or more species cover crop mix.  Broadcast not less than 20 pounds per acre or drill in 2-inch deep furrows spaced 7.5 inches apart.

Rule-Of-Thumb:     Include 50% legumes by weight in mixed species cover crops to provide sufficient nitrogen for following cash crop.

Science Note:     Cover crops containing many species can fix substantial amounts of nitrogen even if few or no legumes are present.  Agronomists speculate that this nitrogen comes from free-living soil bacteria.  Also, symbiotic bacteria fix more nitrogen when mixtures of legumes are grown with plants that do not fix nitrogen.  Maximum synergistic effects are noted in cover crops with 20 or more species.  Ideal number of species is not known.

Rule:     Reserve 5% to 10% of farmland for native weeds.  Grow weeds around fields and in narrow strips between cash crops.  Sow weeds in vineyards and orchards.  Mow weeds only when necessary = at harvest.  Example:  Obtain weed seeds = screenings from local grain elevators.  Sow wherever soil is bare.  Bale weedy fields.  Spread bales of “wildflower hay” wherever soils are weak or pests prolific.  Native weeds are essential to provide food, shelter, and alternate hosts for beneficial insects.  Biological pest control is not effective without native wees growing in close proximity to crops needing protection.

Rule:     Tolerate weeds in cash crops provided density does not exceed 2,500 to 5,000 weeds per acre = approximately 1 weed every 3 or 4 feet equidistantly.  Thin weeds as necessary to protect cash crops from excess competition.  Weeds provide food, shelter, and alternate hosts for predatory and parasitical insects.  Example:  Let weeds grow inside and around tomato fields.  Result:  Save $400 per acre on insecticide costs.

Rule:     For biological pest control, plant cash crops adjacent to native weeds and other plants with small flowers.  More weeds = more flowers = fewer pests = less crop damage.  Rule-Of-Thumb:  If you have a pest problem it means you do not have enough flowers.  Examples:  Plant wildflowers in your vineyard or buckwheat, hairy vetch, and turnips in your orchard.

Rule:     Reserve 5% to 10% of farmland for hedgerows, windbreaks, and wood lots.  For high biodiversity plant not less than 40 species per acre or linear mile.  for best results choose economic species that produce nuts, fruits, berries or other cash crops.  Rule-Of-Thumb:  Everything on a farm should produce income.  Example:  Wildflowers can be harvested for seed or rented to local bee keepers.

Rule:     Break any rule rather than do something stupid.  Rotation rules are based on centuries of practical experience.  Thus, think deeply before trying anything risky.  For example:  Crop rotation can be difficult or inconvenient in small spaces or market gardens.  Solution:  Compromise where needed and apply lots of compost = at least 1 inch deep = 1 pound per square foot.  Soils of high biological activity have strong resistance to pests and diseases.  Rule-Of-Thumb:  Plants with Brix readings above 12% dissolved solids are generally immune to most insects and pathogens.  High Brix levels are directly related to soil organic matter content.  Translation:  More compost = healthier plants = crop rotation is not always necessary all of the time.

Plant Families:     Following is a list of the top 10 botanical families most important to farmers and gardeners.  Use listed species to plan effective crop rotations.

Beet Family = “Chenopods” = Chenopodiaceae:     Amaranth, Beet, Lamb’s Quarters, Mangel-Wurzel (stock beet = forage beet), Spinach, Sugar Beet, Swiss Chard, Quinoa, Redroot Pigweed.

Cabbage Family = “Crucifers” = “Brassicas” = Cruciferae = Brassicaceae:     Arugula, Brussels Sprouts, Broccoli, Cabbage, Chinese Cabbage (bok choy), Cauliflower, Collards, Garden Cress, Horseradish, Kale, Kohlrabi, Mustard (greens), Mustard (seed), Nasturtiums, Radish, Rapeseed (canola), Rapini, Rutabaga, Turnip, Water Cress, Woad (blue dye plant).

Agronomy Note:  Brassicas and Chenopods are good pioneer plants because they do not need mycorrhizal fungi in order to thrive.  Caution:  Do not plant Brassicas or Chenopods if you are trying to encourage beneficial fungi.  Brassicas and Chenopods will not feed mycorrhizal fungi.

Carrot Family = Apiaceae = Umbelliferae:     All plants in the Carrot Family have umbels = umbrella-like flowers composed of hundreds of tiny florets.  Small flowers are ideal “bee forage”:  Angelica, Anise, Caraway, Carrot, Celeriac, Celery, Chervil, Cilantro, Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Fennel, Lovage, Parsley, Parsnip, Wild Carrot (Queen Anne’s Lace).

Cucumber Family = “Cucurbits” = Cucurbitaceae:     Cantaloupe (melon), Cucumber, Cushaw (squash), Gourd, Honeydew (melon), Luffa (sponge), Muskmelon, Pumpkin, Squash (summer, winter, & spaghetti), Watermelon, Zucchini.

Daisy Family = Aster Family = Asteraceae = Compositae:     Artichoke, Calendula, Chamomile, Chicory, dandelion, Endive, Escarole, Everlasting (helichrysum), Lettuce, Marigold, Raddichio, Sunflower, Tansy, Tarragon, Wormwood, Yarrow.

Grain Family = Cereal Family = Grass Family = Gramineae = Poaceae:     Barley, Corn (maize), Durum (wheat) = Semolina = Kamut, Einkorn (wheat), Emmer (wheat), Fonio, Millet, Oat, Rice, Rye, Sorghum, Spelt (wheat), Teff, Triticale (rye x wheat hybrid), Wheat, Wild Rice.  Pseudo-Cereals are not grass plants but are grown and eaten like true grains:  Amaranth, buckwheat, Chia, and Quinoa.

Legume Family = Fabaceae = Leguminosae:     Any plant that has seeds in pods is called a legume.  All legumes fix nitrogen and can be grown as “green manure crops”:     Alfalfa (lucerne), Beans, Carob Tree, Chickpeas (garbanzo beans), Clovers, Cowpea, Castor Bean, Fenugreek, Hairy Indigo, honey Locust Tree, Jack Bean, Lentils, Lespedeza, Lupine, Partridge Pea, Peas, showy Crotalaria, Sunn Hemp, Vetches (tares).  Legumes grown for dry, edible seeds are called “pulses” or “pulse crops”.

Mint Family = Lamiaceae = Labiatae:     Basil, Bee Balm, Bergamot, Calamint, Catnip, Hyssop, Lavender, Lemon Balm, Marjoram, Mint, Oregano, Pachouli, Rosemary, Sage, Savory, Thyme.

Onion Family = Lily Family = “Alliums” = Alliaceae = Liliaceae:     Asparagus, Chives, Garlic, Hyacinth, Leeks, Lilies, Onions, Ramps, Scallions, Shallots.

Tomato Family = Solanaceae:     Eggplant, Peppers, Petunias, Potatoes, Tobacco, Tomatoes, Tomatillos.

Related Publications:     Biblical Agronomy; The Twelve Apostles; Biological Agriculture in Temperate Climates; Polyculture Primer; Strip Cropping Primer; Worm Farming; Managing Weeds as Cover Crops; Earthworm Primer; Planting Maize with Living Mulches; Living Mulches for Weed Control; Crops Among the Weeds; The Edge Effect; Organic Herbicides; Forage Maize for Soil Improvement; Coppicing Primer; Forage Radish Primer; Weed Seed Meal Fertilizer; Intensive Rice Culture Primer; Trash Farming; Pelleted Seed Primer; Upside Down Potatoes; Maize Polyculture Trial 2007 – 2016; No-Till Hungarian Stock Squash; and the Rototiller Primer.

Would You Like To Know More?     For more information on crop rotation and Biological Agriculture please visit:  http://www.worldagriculturesolutions.com  — or —  send your questions to:  Eric Koperek, Editor, World Agriculture Solutions, 413 Cedar Drive, Moon Township, Pennsylvania, 15108 USA.

About The Author:     Mr. Koperek is a plant breeder who farms in Pennsylvania during summer and Florida over winter.  (Growing 2 generations yearly speeds development of new crop varieties).

Index Terms:     Biological Pest Control; Brix Levels (in crops); Companion Planting; Compost; Cover Crops; Crop Rotation; Holy Trinity (grain + legume + root crop polyculture); Landsberger Gemenge (mixed species forage crop); Mixed Species cover Crops; Multi-Species Cover Crops; Multiple Species Cover Crops; Polycrop; Polyculture; Sabbatical Rotation (fallow fields every 7th year); Strip Cropping; Stripper Header; Twelve Apostles (12 species forage crop mix); Weed Management; Wildflower Hay; and Wildflowers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PLANTING MAIZE WITH LIVING MULCHES

What Is It?     Living mulches are cover crops grown to control weeds without herbicides or mechanical cultivation.  Seeds or transplants are set through the living mulch using no-till equipment.  Alternatively, fields can be planted by hand.  The best living mulches are low-growing nitrogen fixing legumes like Dutch White Clover (Trifolium repens).  Tall-growing legumes like Lucerne = Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) or Biennial Yellow Sweet Clover (Meliotus officinalis) also make good living mulches if managed carefully.

I’ve been working with Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) the past 40 years because the seed is less expensive than Dutch White Clover (Trifolium repens).  Sweet corn, popcorn, flint corn, flour corn, pod corn, dent corn, and oil corns all grow well when planted with standard red clover or medium red clover.

How To Do It:     Any type of maize can be top seeded = over seeded with red clover at the last cultivation.  The corn plants are tall enough (about 2 feet high) so that competition with the living mulch is minimal.

Rule-Of-Thumb:     Top seed = over seed maize with tall varieties of clover when corn plants have 4 to 8 leaves = 18 to 24 inches tall.  Maize should be 12 inches high before over seeding with Crimson Clover (Trifolium incarnatum), Sub Clover (Trifolium subterraneum), Dutch White Clover (Trifolium repens) or other types of low growing legumes.

Mow Low & Keep On Mowing:     Any type of maize can be seeded directly into standing red clover using a no-till planter with a fluted coulter.  Two weeks later the field should be closely mowed with a swathing board and divider to keep the clover from falling on the planted rows of corn.  Alternatively, clover can be mowed directly before seeding.  Watch regrowth carefully; a second mowing may be required 2 weeks later.  No herbicides are needed if maize is planted into standing clover; nitrogen fertilizer is not required if clover has grown on the land for 1 or more years.

Feed & Water Liberally:     Corn is sensitive to drought, especially during pollination and when ears are filling out.  For highest yields apply 1 to 2 inches of water weekly to prevent moisture competition between crop and living mulch.

Always remember that 2 crops are growing on the same field at the same time:  The mulch crop and the cash crop.  Careful management is required or both crops may fail.  Fertilize and irrigate generously to reduce competition between crops.

Sweet Corn Yields:     Planting hybrid sweet corn into standing red clover yields about 415 sacks per acre on average when sweet corn is seeded 8 inches apart within rows and 30 inches between rows = 25,979 seeds per acre.  Actual plants per acre ~ 21,000 (17% field loss rate is common).  1 sack = 52 ears = 4 baker’s dozen.  1 baker’s dozen = 13 ears.  415 sacks = 1,660 baker’s dozen = 21,580 marketable ears per acre.  Note:  Yield figures are discounted 50% for typical losses to crows, deer, groundhogs, coons, ear worms, under size or poorly pollinated ears, and other causes.

Critter Control:     Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are a big problem in my area; unprotected fields are ravaged.  It is not uncommon to have 50 coons in a field of sweet corn each night.  To control coons, I use battery powered radios set to all-talk stations.  Move the radios to a different location every day.  As a last resort, dissolve 1 level teaspoon = 5 milliliters of Blue Streak Fly Bait in 1 can of regular Coca Cola and pour contents into a shallow bowl.  Set bait dishes along field boundaries to intercept coons before they get into the corn.  Note:  Blue Streak is a powerful poison that will kill any animal that ingests it.  Make sure to tie up your farm dogs to keep them safe.

Ideally, sweet corn fields should be protected with deer fencing.  If this is not practical, enclose fields with a low barrier just high enough to contain hounds.  Each field needs at least 4 deer hounds or similar large breed for adequate security.  Small breeds or lone dogs are likely to get mobbed by browsing deer that travel in herds of 40 or more animals.

Mulch-In-Place:     Buying and spreading mulch is too expensive for field scale agriculture.  It is far less costly to grow a mulch crop on the field needing weed control.  When mature, the mulch crop is killed by roller-crimping or mowing with a sickle-bar mower.  No-till equipment is then used to set seeds or transplants directly through the dead surface mulch.  Dutch White Clover (Trifolium repens) or other low growing legumes can be over seeded at the same time cash crops are planted.  Small clover seeds fill any gaps in the mulch aiding weed control and increasing field biodiversity.

Most mulch-in-place crops are cereals because grass plants decompose more slowly than broad leaf species.  4 to 5 tons = 8,000 to 10,000 pounds of long straw per acre are needed to provide 90% weed control in field crops.  Sow Common Cereal Rye = Winter Rye (Secale cereale) at 3 bushels per acre.  Roller-crimp or sickle bar mow when rye reaches 6 feet high or when seeds reach the soft dough stage.  Transplant or seed cash crop immediately.  Rye mulch provides effective weed control for 6 to 8 weeks; this is sufficient time for crop to establish and start to close the leaf canopy over the field.  Once crop canopy closes any weeds in the field will be shaded and minimally competitive.

Weed Farming:     It is possible to grow maize in weeds although this requires careful management.  Select a field with dense, luxuriant weed growth at least 3 feet tall (5 or 6 feet high is better).  Broadcast Dutch White Clover (Trifolium repens) or other low-growing legume into standing weeds.  Kill weeds with a sickle bar mower or flatten with a roller-crimper.  Seed maize with a no-till planter when the soil is warm = at least 65 degrees Fahrenheit.  Irrigate immediately or wait for rain.  You are now in a race against time.  Watch field diligently for corn germination and weed density.

It may be necessary to mow field 2 weeks after seeding if surface mulch is not thick enough to suppress weed growth.  Mow field as close to the soil surface as practical.  If weeds regrow quickly, mow field again 2 weeks later.  Adjust mower height to prevent killing corn seedlings.

The trick here is to germinate the corn as fast as possible — which is why irrigation is so profitable.  If maize seedlings have a few days head start over the weeds they will make a good crop.

The secret to weed farming is to manage wild plants just like any other mixed species cover crop.  Fertilize and irrigate weedy fields to encourage maximum growth.  More biomass (leaves & stems) = more mulch and better weed control.

Maize Polycultures:     Planting corn, beans, and squash together in the same field is rarely practiced nowadays because interseeding is difficult to mechanize successfully.  Consequently, most traditional polycultures are seeded by hand.

Space maize widely so beans and squash get enough light to make a crop.  40 inches between rows and 12 inches between plants within each row is traditional practice = 62 rows x 208 plants per row = 12,896 plants per acre ~ 3.3 square feet per corn plant.

Use a lawn mower to clip living mulch before seeding beans and squash.  Alternatively, wait until the last cultivation (when corn plants are 2 feet tall) then over seed field with Dutch White Clover (Trifolium repens) directly beans and squash are planted.

Wait until soil temperatures reach at least 65 degrees Fahrenheit and corn plants have 8 leaves ~ 24 inches high before planting pole beans and squash.  Earlier plantings are rarely successful because beans and squash overrun short maize stalks.  Soak bean and squash seeds in warm water overnight to speed germination.  Plant 2 or 3 beans close to each corn stalk.  Thin later to 1 strong seedling per maize plant = 12,896 pole bean plants per acre.  Seed squash every other corn row and 6 feet between plants within row = 31 rows per acre x 34 plants per row = 1,054 squash plants per acre.  Irrigate immediately beans and squash are planted.

Strip Cropping:     Strip cropping combines the pest control advantages of polycultures with the efficiency of modern farm machinery.  The idea is to divide farms or fields into long, narrow strips 4 to 16 rows wide depending on the crop and available machinery.  Like ribbons each strip wends its way across the countryside following land contours.  Strips on either side are planted with unrelated crops.  Long fields are good for mechanical efficiency (fewer turns) while narrow fields maximize biological edge effects (fewer pests).

For example, instead of growing corn, soybeans, sunflowers and alfalfa in separate fields plant each crop in narrow strips:  4 rows of corn + 4 rows of soybeans + 4 rows of sunflowers + 4 rows of alfalfa.  (Try to make each strip about the same width).  Repeat this pattern across the field or over the entire farm.  Note how tall and short crops are alternated for better light penetration.  Legumes are paired with non-legumes.  Each crop is unrelated to its neighbors.

Growing different row crops close together mimics the biological diversity of companion planted gardens and traditional polycultures.  Translation:  Insect pests go somewhere else for lunch.

Build-A-Toy:     No-till equipment is costly.  If you are mechanically minded you can build an inexpensive no-till seeder in your own garage.  At minimum, you need 5 things:  (1)  A large (20 inches or more in diameter) coulter with a razor sharp edge to cut through standing vegetation.  You can use a fluted coulter at your discretion.  (2)  Adjustable depth 3/4 inch or wider blade to open a slot for seeding.  A fertilizer knife, cultivator shovel, or chisel tine can be used for this application.  (3)  A delivery tube to drop seed into opened soil.  Tube can be any convenient dimension (up to 3 or 4 inches diameter to plant potatoes or set transplants).  (4)  Double press wheels to ensure good seed-to-soil contact.  (5)  Removable iron weights to adjust planter mass so coulter cuts through surface trash and seeding knife penetrates the soil.  Other items can be added to the basic rig as needful.  For example, add a seat then a child can manually drop seeds, potatoes, or transplants.

Related Publications:     Crop Rotation Primer; Biblical Agronomy; The Twelve Apostles; Managing Weeds as Cover Crops; Weed Seed Meal Fertilizer; Trash Farming; No-till Hungarian Stock Squash; Living Mulches for Weed Control; Organic Herbicides; Pelleted Seed Primer; Crops Among the Weeds; Forage Maize for Soil Improvement; Forage Radish Primer; and Rototiller Primer.

Would You Like To Know More?     Please contact the Author directly if you have any questions or need additional information about growing maize in living mulches.

Please visit:     http://www.worldagriculturesolutions.com  — or —  send your questions to:  Eric Koperek, Editor, World Agriculture Solutions, 413 Cedar Drive, Moon Township, Pennsylvania, 15108 United States of America  — or —  send an e-mail to:  Eric Koperek = worldagriculturesolutions@gmail.com

About The Author:     Mr. Koperek is a plant breeder who farms in Pennsylvania during summer and Florida over winter.  (Growing 2 generations yearly speeds development of new crop varieties).